This post is excerpted from Every Day of the Civil War, A Chronological Encyclopedia By Bud Hannings. McFarland Publishing, Incorporated, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. 2010
July 31 1861–(Wednesday) In Louisiana, Confederate colonel George N. Holland assumes command of the naval station at New Orleans. He succeeds Commander L. Rousseau.
In Missouri, one day after the offices of governor, lieutenant governor and secretary of state had been declared vacant, Hamilton Gamble is elected governor in place of Claiborne Jackson, a pro-Confederate governor.
In Confederate general officer activity, Lt. Colonel Gabriel J. Rains (West Point, 1827), 5th U.S. Infantry, resigns his commission with the intent to join the Confederacy. Rains is appointed brigadier general the following September.