A Day in the Civil War, Attack against Forts Hatteras and Clark, North Carolina

This post is excerpted from Every Day of the Civil War, A Chronological Encyclopedia By Bud Hannings. McFarland Publishing, Incorporated, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. 2010

August 28–29 1861–ATTACK AGAINST FORTS HATTERAS AND CLARK–Union warships had arrived off the coast in the vicinity of Fort Hatteras and Fort Clark, North Carolina, on the 27th. On the 28th at 0500, Flag Officer Louis M. Goldsborough (successor to Flag Officer Silas Stringham), aboard the USS Minnesota, orders the ships to open fire and take on the Confederate shore batteries. The powerful show of naval fire continues the bombardment without pause until 0900. The steam frigates Minnesota and Wabash, supported by the sloops Cumberland and Susquehanna, commence firing. Marines from each of the ships’ respective detachments join with the army force for the assault. Many of the troopers under General Benjamin Butler get stranded on a sandbar while landing, but Confederate Forts Hatteras and Clark haul down their colors. Fort Clark is abandoned and a contingent of Coast Guardsmen and other troops under Colonel Weber secure it.

Meanwhile, the USS Monticello advances onward toward Fort Hatteras, reaching a point about 600 yards from the objective when it comes under severe fire from the Confederate batteries. The artillery barrage inflicts some damage to the vessel. Rather than risk further harm or possible destruction of the ship, the Monticello pulls back, permitting the Minnesota, Pawnee and Susquehanna to ease up and provide a substantial amount of fire power to silence the guns on shore. Throughout the day, the naval guns bombard the Fort, while the southerners trade fire with the vessels and simultaneously pour fire into Union-held Fort Clark. By nightfall, exhaustion overwhelms both sides, mandating a pause in the fighting.

The incessant day-long barrages have inflicted a high toll on the Rebels within Fort Hatteras. The commander, Confederate Colonel William Martin, too tired to even stand, passes command to Flag Officer Samuel Barron, the naval officer in command of the Confederate ships in the area of Pamlico Sound. During the night of the 28th-29th, Confederate reinforcements arrive to bolster the beleaguered garrison.

Back at Fort Clark, the Union troops abandon their positions to seek safer positions out of the range of the Confederate artillery, but these troops also redeploy a battery of three guns, which, on the morning of the 29th, does much to deter additional reinforcements that approach on Confederate vessels. The guns, overseen by Coastguardsman Lt. Johnson, pinpoint the passageway and with a blanket of fire forbid passage, which eliminates any possibility of getting the reinforcements ashore.

At 1030, the Confederates hoist a white flag above the fort. Shortly thereafter, the garrison proposes to surrender the fort if afforded full honors of war, but Stringham and Butler decline. Having no genuine options, the beleaguered Confederates capitulate. Captain Samuel Barron of the Confederate States Navy (previously served in the U.S. Navy) boards the USS Minnesota and surrenders the fort. Confederate Brigadier General Richard C. Gatlin (West Point, 1832), commanding officer, Department of North Carolina, receives the blame for the loss and also for that of New Bern, North Carolina, during March of 1862. Captain Samuel Barron is paroled on September 25. After release, he is assigned duty in the Department of the Cumberland and Tennessee. During 1863 he is assigned command of the Confederate Naval forces in Europe.

The Union loses one killed and two wounded. Confederate losses are five killed, 51 wounded, 715 captured. U.S. Navy Seaman Benjamin Swearer, stationed on the USS Pawnee, is the first man to raise the Stars and Stripes over captured Fort Clark. Swearer, for his extraordinary heroism under fire in the face of the enemy, becomes a recipient of the Medal of Honor. Early in the engagement, the aide-de camp of General Butler swims to shore against heavy seas to deliver information to Colonel Weber at Fort Clark, but while there he gathers an enormous amount of intelligence that alters Butler’s plans. It had been the objective to destroy the forts; however, due to the new information, Butler returns to Washington and convinces General Scott to hold the forts. Scott orders Butler to proceed to New England to raise a voluminous force for use in North Carolina. During the latter part of September, the 20th Indiana Regiment, commanded by Colonel W.L. Brown, will arrive at Hatteras to bolster the forces already there.

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Jay Carney White House Spokesman Changes His Opinion.

Jay Carney formerly a reporter had at the time, bitterly complained that President Bush was taking a vacation at his ranch in Texas during August 2001. During this year, 2011, Michelle Obama,  has taken more than 40 days of vacation to various parts of the world.

At present, Barack Hussein Obama is preparing to go on a ten-day vacation at Martha’s Vinyard. Jay Carney, according to a quote in the Daily Telegraph has apparently now has a different outlook.

According to the Telegraph, while the “rating of the United States downgraded for the first time…,” Carney recently said: “I don’t think Americans out there would begrudge that notion that the president would spend some time with his family.”

Carney also stated in the same article: “there’s no such thing as a presidential vacation”.

I wonder if Jay Carney sent an apology to President Bush.


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Another Nephew of Uncle Sam

Patriots come in all ages and even a Fourth Gradercan make our troops feel proud. This is a short tribute to the U. S. Armed Forces by Lauren Mitros, which when first cut was sent by Armed Forces Radio to all our ships at sea and military bases around the world. The statioon played it every day from Thanksgiving until Chrismas. Of course, its only August, but for some it is Christmas everyday, so enjoy the podcast and pass it on to your friends. We are sure it made some of our troops smile when they heard it and my guess is that you will also smile.

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Good Morning To Our Troops

This is a short tribute from Lauren Mitros to our brave and courageous troops of the U. S. Armed Forces. It should make you smile and I recommend it to all patriots in the United States. If you enjoy it leave a comment that we will pass on to Lauren.

Enjoy the podcast and pass this on to your friends.



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This Day in the Civil War August 10 1861

This post is excerpted from Every Day of the Civil War, A Chronological Encyclopedia By Bud Hannings. McFarland Publishing, Incorporated, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. 2010

August 10 (Saturday) THE BATTLE OF WILSON’S CREEK (SPRINGFIELD AND OAK HILL) At Wilson’s Creek, Missouri, at about 0500, Union guns, the batteries of Captain James Totten (West Point, 1805) and Lt. John Van Deusen Du Bois (West Point, 1855), announce the presence of the Yankees; however, the Confederates, under General Ben McCulloch, themselves making preparations to assault the Union at Springfield, are up for the fight, reducing the element of surprise. Nevertheless, the Union makes progress against the Confederate Missouri Guards under Generals (state troops) John Bullock Clark Jr., J.H. McBride, William Y. Slack and Mosby Monroe Parsons. The Union Infantry, supported by the mounted horse guards, pushes the Rebels back beyond some hills. The 1st Iowa and 1st Missouri Regiments secure the ground, protected by the guns of Totten in the heights and those of DuBois to the rear, staring down toward the concealed Confederate batteries.

Meanwhile, Colonel Franz Sigel plows Brigadier General Louis Blenker against the rear and forcefully drives the Rebels into the woods. His 1,200 troops and six guns convince Confederate Colonel Ben Brown and Colonel Thomas J. Churchill (1st Arkansas Mounted Rifles) to seek more tenable positions. Sigel, like Lyon, continues to advance, but neither is aware of the other’s progress. Many of the Rebels also wear blue uniforms, causing confusion on the field. At General Lyon’s positions, a large contingent of troops, thought surely to be Union, seem to be approaching the guns, but when they reach a point close to the line, like the pirates of old, the Rebels replace the Union colors with the Stars and Bars, revealing their identity. The ploy works perfectly, but only for awhile, as the effective fire of the Union’s guns turn the force back, essentially saving the guns and the battalion of regular infantry, led by Captain Joseph Plummer (West Point, 1841).

In the meantime, to the rear, a similar experience befalls Franz Sigel as he notices that the intensity of the firing of the Union guns had slackened immensely, giving him the false impression that the Confederates had been beaten at the front. He continues the advance driving down Fayetteville Road and soon after, he is informed that friendly troops are approaching. Upon this seemingly good news, Sigel brings his columns to a halt to await what he expects to be the forces of Lyon. And then as the advancing columns of blue get within close range of Sigel’s line, the Stars and Stripes vanishes and is replaced the Stars and Bars, followed by a enfilade of incoming fire. This new unexpected action, including a deadly continuing sheet of fire emerging from concealed artillery positions, causes horrendous problems for the Union. Lyon’s line collapses as the troops scatter, and in an instant, their discipline vanishes.

The Confederate fire relentlessly rakes the Union column, kills the artillery’s horses and collapses the flank. The successful ruse nearly costs Sigel his entire force. About 300 troops, including Sigel, manage to pull back, dragging one gun out of six with them and accomplishing that feat only by compelling some reluctant Confederate prisoners to pull the cannon from harm’s way.

All the while, the forces of Lyon continue to hold their own against the Rebels, but still there is no word of Sigel’s action in the rear. Suddenly the Confederate pressure bursts through the line to the left of Totten’s battery. As the Rebels make progress, General Lyon alters his plans, transferring Major Frederick Steele’s battalion of regulars to bolster the gap and rally the troops. Steele holds the line as his troops forge an impenetrable wall of fire. Both sides fight to a stalemate for about one hour.

General Lyon moves between the enfilade of fire to maintain morale and discipline, but a shot kills his horse and another shell wounds him in the leg, then yet another shot strikes him in the head. He somehow changes horses and rejoins the battle, ignoring his severe wounds to lead a cavalry charge to change the tide and bring the momentum back to his army.

The 1st Kansas and 1st Iowa Regiments, having lost their commanders, mount a bayonet charge, led by General Lyon. At about 0900, while ferociously engaged in the attack, he receives another wound, his third, but this last one is mortal and he is taken from the field. At this time, subsequent to about four constant hours of combat, the Union has been able to forestall defeat, and they have reclaimed and held the previously lost ground.

The command passes to Major Samuel Davis Sturgis, who still has no intelligence regarding Sigel’s action in the rear. While information is sought, Major Sturgis is confronted by another ruse by the Confederates facing him. They slowly approach in blue uniforms presenting themselves as friendly troops, but as they encroach, the Stars and Stripes is again replaced with the Confederate colors when the assault begins. The Union lines meet the grueling attack and hold the ground, driving the Rebels back; however, the unrelenting pressure and the superior numbered Rebels regroup and mount yet another charge. This surge turns the tide. Sturgis, still unaware of Sigel’s plight, has no alternative.

He orders a retreat following six hours of incessant battle and begins the trudge to Springfield, joined by the survivors of Sigel’s command as they retire, arriving back at Springfield at the conclusion of the nine-mile march at about 1700.

The Union suffers 223 killed, 721 wounded and 291 missing. The Confederates have 265 killed, 800 wounded and 30 missing. Union Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon (West Point, 1841) is mortally wounded while charging Confederate positions during the engagement; his body remains on the field and is recovered by Confederates. Also, Colonel Robert Byington Mitchell (2nd Kansas Infantry) is severely wounded. Confederate General Sterling Price (Missouri Militia) ensures that General Lyon’s body is returned to Springfield; however, soon after, the Union troops under Colonel Sigel retire from Springfield and again General Lyon’s remains are left behind. Confederates under General J B. Clark prepare his remains for burial and deliver the body to Mrs. J.S. Phelps, who arranges internment. Later, General Lyon’s body is removed and is buried at East Hartford, Connecticut.

Colonel (later brigadier general) George Washington Dietzler, 1st Kansas Volunteers, sustains a severe wound that incapacitates him for a prolonged period of time. Union Pvt. Nicholas Boquet, Company D, 1st Iowa Infantry, at great risk, saves a Union cannon from capture and after the ordeal is awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his bravery. The 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles under Stand Watie (later brigadier general) participate at this battle.

In Missouri, a contingent of the Missouri Home Guards engages a group of Confederates at Potosi. The Union suffers one killed. The Confederates sustain two killed and three wounded. In other activity, a Union contingent skirmishes with Confederates at Charleston. The Union sustains one killed and six wounded, including Colonel Thomas E. Ransom. The Confederates sustain 40 killed.

In Union general officer activity, Union Captain Charles Champion Gilbert (West Point, 1846) is wounded. Gilbert is subsequently promoted to brigadier general during September 1862 and commands the 3rd Provisional Corps at Perryville in October 1862, where he will be chastised for not contributing his support to General Alexander McCook, then under heavy pressure from the Rebels. Major Samuel D. Sturgis (West Point, 1846), who assumed command after the demise of General Lyon, is appointed brigadier general during the following March, effective the date of the Battle of Wilson’s Creek.

In Confederate general officer activity, Captain (or Major) Francis Marion Cockrell, leading a company of Missouri militia, participates in this battle. Cockrell is promoted to brigadier general during July 1863. In addition, Colonel (later brigadier general) Thomas Pleasant Dockery commands the 19th Arkansas Infantry at this action. The Confederate 3rd Texas Cavalry, led by Colonel (later brigadier general) Elkanah B. Greer, participates in this battle, as does the 3rd Texas Cavalry, led by Lt. Colonel (later brigadier general) Walter P. Lane. At this time, Major General Sterling Price (Missouri State Guard) retains his title, given to him previously by former Missouri Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson; Price does not receive his appointment in the Confederate Army until April of the following year.

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Our Seals, God Rest Their Souls

Since the days of the Continental Navy and John Paul Jones, the U.S. Navy has played a key part in keeping this nation safe, secure and free of tyranny. In times of jest, there are moments that have raised the blood pressure of the sailors, such as when the are referred to as taxis for the Marines; however, the soldiers and the Marines full well understand the importance of the navy.

Nevertheless, when the navy loses any of its team, such as the tragic loss of our Seals recently in Afghanistan, an aura of deep sadness hovers over all of the armed forces. However, those who remain behind to grieve never falter from their responsibilities. They grieve; however, the loss only more firmly galvanizes them for the future tasks that must be handled in order to assure our posterity that despite some sorrowful losses as American warriors toil tirelessly to rid the world of terrorists, the American fighting men will prevail. They will be instilled with an even deeper desire to permanently rid the world of those terrorists who desire to eliminate the United States from the world map. Nonetheless, others have tried to destroy America and failed and it is inevitable that the Islamist terrorists will suffer the same fate.

The United States has not grown to become the free world’s protector by timidity and luckily for the terrorists, the U. S. has refrained from using its full power. Nonetheless, American patience is running thin and after sustaining this latest loss, maybe the powers to be in Washington will finally allow our warriors to get the job done. If parents, spouses and children are to continue losing their loved ones, they should at least know that the government in Washington is reverting to the classic American rule of war, fight only to win.

Americans can and do accept losses; however, they must know their losses have not been suffered in vain. Other Seals will pick up the slack, while the airmen, soldiers and Marines continue to serve selflessly in the name of freedom. Eulogies are necessary and useful to help soothe the loss, but the losses will be more properly honored by providing our military with everything they need to finish the job, including as many troops as are required. This is war and despite some in Washington who fail to realize exactly who we are engaged against, or if they know, fail to acknowledge that the enemy foot soldiers are Islamic terrorists, they are more of a threat than the enemy.

These American warriors, in the air, on land and sea all proudly rally round the Flag whenever danger emerges and now is one of those times in which once again, it is time to remind the world that the Stars and Stripes can be wounded, but never fatally.

The tribute to the flag, The Eternal Flag, was written during 1979 A.D. during the Iranian Crisis by Bud Hannings Seniram Publishing and revised subsequent to the terrorist attack against the U.S. in New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia on September 11, 2001. It is a reminder to all Americans that tragedy only makes us stronger.

May our gallant Seals and other troops who have given the ultimate sacrifice always be honored and remembered as true courageous sentinels of the Stars and Stripes and the Liberty she represents.

                           THE ETERNAL FLAG

Flags have come and Flags have gone, but the American Flag is here to stay. As each crisis evolves, Our Flag always waves a little prouder in the wind. Just as a new wave in the ocean appears to take the place of the one that disappeared on the beach, a new American Flag will blow in the breeze more proudly than the one that some tyrant will burn or tear.

Our Flag has always flown as a Beacon of Freedom in the wind for all the World to see, and even as they saw it burning in Tehran, they must have seen the majestic beauty of its disappearance in the wind, only to be reappearing a few feet to the left or right to be burned again. Their barbaric burning of the greatest Flag of them all sent sparks flying that have welded the American people into one, almost as if the smoke from their fires traveled across the ocean and reassembled the Flags to fly higher and prouder than ever before.

During 1983, terrorists struck the U. S. Embassy and the Marine Barracks in Beirut and this dastardly act was followed during 1987 by the deaths of American servicemen aboard the USS Stark when it was hit, supposedly accidentally, by an Iraqi missile. Other atrocities occurred during 1988, including the torture-death of Marine Lt. Colonel Rich Higgins while on UN duty in Lebanon and the downing of the Pan-Am Plane over Lockerbie Scotland.

The Flag again was tested during 1993 when terrorists struck the World Towers in New York, killing civilians. And now during 2001 on a bright September day, terrorists have struck again, savagely hijacking civilian planes and causing massive loss of life. The terrorists intended to destroy the American will, but instead resurrected the American Spirit and unleashed unimaginable determination that the world has never seen.

The New York skyline has fallen, planes with civilians aboard and thousands of unsuspecting workers and rescuers have been lost and the Pentagon has sustained grave losses, but the stamina of America can be seen on the grieving faces of every volunteer. Old Glory rests in a wounded position atop the debris near the harbor and she respectfully drapes the scarred wall in Virginia, but the smoldering smoke and fire is unable to cloak her brilliant illumination that continues to beam signals of hope to all parts of the globe.

It is time to stop trying to please everyone in the world. Americans have helped at one time or another almost every country in the world, and did so because they wanted to help, not because they needed any glory. Many Americans have literally given their lives to liberate thousands upon thousands of imprisoned people throughout our history. We have not only helped people, but entire nations. And how quickly they forget.

We can be assured of a much greater love of country, freedom, and the foresight to realize that the terrorists and anyone else who have not learned from history what great things America has done unselfishly for the rest of the World, are no longer important, but that it is important that we as Americans be aware of it.

Maybe now, the people in the rest of the world will realize that the American Flag can be wounded, but never fatally. Neither burning or tearing will ever eradicate the Eternal Flag of the United States of America or the unequaled acts of valor and bravery of its countless deeds in defense of Freedom throughout the world. The American Flag is an indelible mark, for us and our posterity, that possesses the unique ability to shine brighter under stress and the durability to withstand intimidation by adversaries anywhere in the world. She is the symbol of freedom and the invincible spine of the American Spirit. She is the velvet threads of glory, the blood of our ancestors and the oxygen for our posterity.

The Stars and Stripes in her majestic beauty shall always sail the seas, blanket the stars and trumpet the advance of her endless line of heroes, the vanguard of Liberty, who will march in noble cadence to safeguard the dignity, character and honor of the United States.


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Sometimes Names Can Fool You

An opinion piece (Partially taken from Leaders of the American Revolution, by Bud Hannings, McFarland & Company Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. 2009 And Pportrait of the Stars and Stripes, By Bud Hannings, Seniram Publishing, Glenside, Pennsylvania.  ):

Sometime names can fool you and at times, some names are meant to fool you. One such example is the American Civil Liberties Union or as it is commonly known, the ACLU. It sounds almost like American apple pie and ice cream. Nevertheless, if you study some of the cases they take up, you will notice the organization is thought by many to be the Anti-American Civil Liberties Union. It might be of some interest to you to know something about the organization’s founder, Roger Baldwin and of his intent.

Not surprisingly, the ACLU always seems eager to separate church and state, including taking prayer out of the schools and they have a propensity to take cases which portend to be noble, while the organization cleverly works to dismantle Christianity. If you see a case where the Holy family display with the Baby Jesus is being attacked in court to prevent the display, you will probably find the ACLU.

One place where it would be a rare occasion to find the ACLU would be in defense of the U.S. military, unless it were to defend a traitor or someone opposed to the military. It might be equally difficult to find the ACLU defending an American police force. Nevertheless, if a case in court includes the police, the ACLU most probably would be there, only against the police.

During this modern period, even the Bible has come under attack along with Christianity. The United States sends its warriors to defend many nations, some of which are Muslim and the U. S. Congress acquiesces to demands that American Christians must not bring their Bibles into the country (example, Saudi Arabia) on the grounds that we must respect the rights of the Muslims. Of course, Congress seems to have no trouble repressing the rights of our troops to practice their religion.

In some countries, Catholic priests and Protestant ministers serving with the military essentially hold clandestine services to avoid displeasing the Muslims. It was and continues to be an outrage that even one American warrior has to die for people who despise Christianity. If a country forbids an American force from openly practicing its faith, or even wearing a symbol of their faith such as a cross, a crucifix or a miraculous medal, maybe that county should be officially that if Christianity is not respected and the Bible cannot be read, our warriors will no longer be deployed to protect that nation.

Despite what some claim, the United States of America was founded by Christians, predominantly Protestant and it is a rare occasion to find any of our genuine founders who did not believe in God, based on their Christian faith. The frequent clamoring about our Founders, for the most part were not Christian is a myth. They had many frailties as do all men, including the Apostles, but nearly all openly claimed to be Christian. Even among the military leaders, most were openly Christian and many openly prayed before going into battle as well as after the battle.

Even the Congress was not bashful about proclaiming the Christianity. In Philadelphia on 11 September, 1776, during a Thursday session, Congress was informed at about 0845 that the British advance was continuing and encroaching Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania en route to Philadelphia. During that same session, although Congress was getting close to abandoning the city, the session continued. After receiving a report from a committee regarding the printing of Bibles for the troops, it was determined that proper printing presses were unavailable in the United States. Congress, however, after some discussion and debate, showed no signs of cowering from their faith. The Committee of Commerce was directed to “import 20,000 Bibles from Holland, Scotland, or elsewhere, into the different ports of the states in the Union.” Apparently, the Continental Congress ordered Bibles without apologies to anyone. Maybe they were not as enlightened as present-day politicians.

Thomas Jefferson, just before he was elected as president (1800) in a letter to Doctor Benjamin Rush stated: “I have sworn upon the altar of God, Eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man. That statement alone should dispels rumors that Jefferson was a deist; rather than a Christian.

Another, Benjamin Franklin, known as a philanderer; rather than a Christian, had been raised as a Presbyterian, had some difficulties with some ministers, but he was a Christian and in his biography, Franklin noted: “And conceiving God to be the fountain of wisdom, I thought it right and necessary to solicit his assistance for obtaining it; to this end I formed the following little prayer, which was prefixed to my tables of examination, for daily use: ‘O powerful Goodness! bountiful Father! merciful Guide! Increase in me that wisdom which discovers my truest interest. Strengthen my resolutions to perform what that wisdom dictates. Accept my kind offices to thy other children as the only return in my power for thy continual favours to me.” Franklin also stated in his biography “that there is one God, who made all things. That he governs the world by his providence. That he ought to be worshiped by adoration, prayer, and thanksgiving. But that the most acceptable service of God is doing good to man. That the soul is immortal. And that God will certainly reward virtue and punish vice, either here or hereafter.”

Yet another, General George Washington, who retained a friendly relationship with Catholics is known to have kept a picture of the Blessed Virgin. After his death, the picture was listed in the articles detailed at Mount Vernon. Washington was noted as a Christian who was not afraid to pray even in public; however, having a personal picture (or of course painting) of the Blessed Virgin should remove any doubs asto his profession of being a Christian.

Back to the ACLU–During January 1920, the American Civil Liberties Union was formed in the United States. Its founder, Roger Baldwin, a Harvard Graduate, had been director of the Bureau of the American Union against Militarism and received a jail sentence for refusing to serve in the military. Baldwin remained the ACLU’s director until 1950, and then served as an advisor until his death at 97, during 1981. During 1934, Baldwin stated his position regarding civil liberties: “I TOO TAKE A CLASS POSITION. IT IS ANTI-CAPITALIST AND PRO REVOLUTIONARY… I CHAMPION CIVIL LIBERTIES AS THE BEST NONVIOLENT MEANS OF BUILDING THE POWER ON WHICH WORKER’S RULE MUST BE BASED … WHEN THAT POWER OF THE WORKING CLASS IS ONCE ACHIEVED, AS IT HAS BEEN ONLY IN THE SOVIET UNION, I AM FOR MAINTAINING IT BY ANY MEANS WHATSOEVER … THE SOVIET UNION HAS ALREADY CREATED LIBERTIES FAR GREATER THAN EXIST ELSEWHERE IN THE WORLD. Baldwin, during 1935, although stating that he had never belonged to the Communist Party said that “COMMUNISM IS THE GOAL:”

Knowledge is the key to maintaining Liberty. The U. S. Military cannot do it alone; however, as long as Americans are able to distinguish their enemies from their friends, the Stars and Stripes will prevail against tyranny. Nonetheless, anyone or any nation that stands against Christianity must be carefully observed. Knowing history can prevent disaster in the future. My suggestion is to keep the Bible and the cross in the forefront, for in times of turbulence, they can calm the stormy seas.

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This Day (August 7, 1775) in the American Revolution.

This entry is excerpted from Chronology of The American Revolution, military and Political Actioons Day by Day, By Bud Hannings. Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers. 2008

August 6 1775–In Virginia: Patrick Henry is appointed commander of the Virginia !st Regiment (militia) by the Virginia Convention, although he has no military experience. Toward the latter part of the month, he is also appointed commander-in-chief of Virginia’s regular troops. He resigns February 28 the following year.

The Virginia Convention had met in July !775, during the period when the south was preparing to raise forces to support the Continental Army in the north under General Washington against the British at Boston. The debates continued into August and ended on the 21st. At first the Convention decided to raise four thousand troops. After reconsideration, the number was reduced to about three thousand troops divided into three regiments, but final approval had not been gained. Afterwards compromise divided the colony into sixteen regional districts stretched between the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this time, although the southern colonies are under British control, the south, except for Florida, is not overseen by large numbers of British troops or garrisons, presenting the southerners room to expand their forces and evict the royal governors and governments. Each of the districts raises one company of full time troops (enlistment of one year) and it is also agreed upon to form a ten-company battalion of minutemen to provide the area with a well trained defense force in place of the local militia (volunteer companies) which had been established beginning in 1774.

The Eastern Shore district does not raise a regular company; however, it is authorized by the Convention to establish a larger than usual contingent of Minute Men. Subsequent to getting organized, the various companies move to Williamsburg, where they are organized on 21 October. Also, the convention’s compromise also created additional troops to defend the frontier. Five independent companies are to be formed to garrison frontier outposts, with headquarters being at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) commanded by Captain John Neville.

Four of the five companies are oversized, with each containing one captain, three lieutenants, one ensign, four sergeants, 2 drummers, 2 fifers and 100 rank and file (enlisted men). The fifth company is to be composed of a single lieutenant and 25 enlisted men. Two companies will be posted at Fort Pitt, both of which had been formed by men of the West Augusta District. The smaller company, also of the West Augusta District, will be deployed at Fort Fincastle at the mouth of the Wheeling River. Meanwhile, one company formed by men of Botetourt County deploys at Point Pleasant, while the final one formed by men of Fincastle County deploy in their home county.

The musicians (drummers and fifes) at this time are primarily used to send signals. Initially, these troops also assist with the wounded and they are also used as guards and for other tasks. Later, during 1777, they also begin to carry arms. By 1776, the regimental staffs receive fife and drum majors. These men, in addition to performing for the regiments, are also delegated to instructing the drummers and fifers. This practice is followed by the entry of bands, composed of about eight men, which add the music of horns and woodwinds to the repertoire.

The respective bands in the Continental Army belong only to the respective regiment. Even the commander-in-chief, General Washington, must request permission for the use of a band at an official army affair or even a non-official gathering such as a dance. In contrast, the Europeans often contracted civilians for their bands.

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The Battle of Guadalcanal August 1942

More than seven months after the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States finally takes offensive action. The First Marine Division assaults Japanese held Guadalcanal on 7 August, 1942.  It is a standard example of United States Marines doing what they are expected to do.

Excerpted from A Portrait of the Stars and Stripes, Volume II, by Bud Hannings. Glenside, Pennsylvania: Seniram Publishing. 1991

The story is below and if you would like to hear the podcast on the battle, here is the shortcut:


August 7th 1942-February 9th 1943 – (Pacific) THE BATTLE OF GUADALCANAL – The Japanese have, up to this point, knocked over and trampled over all Allied ground resistance in the Pacific and Asia. Because of a continual string of conquests, the Japanese are of course confident that any invasion mounted by the U.S. will be turned back. The Americans are coming, but not in force Though it has been almost eight months since Pear) Harbor, the Americans are only attacking with one Division (minus the 7th Marines) on their first offensive thrust of the war. But they are fortified with an extreme animosity against the Japanese. Stories are already legion about the Soldiers, Sailors and Marines, already slaughtered by the Japs during their carnivorous odyssey, that has already brought their terror to the gates of the U.S., in the Pacific. Stories of their rape and pillage, as they romped through their first inglorious trophies of conquest in Asia. have been added to the first-hand stories of atrocities, against Americans. In addition, Jap propagandists have been giving the Yanks a steady broadside since the war has begun. The one-sided conflict on the ground is about to be strenuously tested.

The time has come for a reckoning with the Japanese and the Solomons have been selected as the first chain to be seized. The First Marine Division, commanded by General Alexander Vandegrift, are to do what they have been trained to do, kill Japs, seize the ground and kill more Japs. If these Oriental Supermen bleed, the Marines should be able to get the situation well in hand. Guadalcanal, in the southwest Pacific off New Guinea is the largest of the Solomon chain, and there is very little intelligence known by the U.S., concerning defenses or exact numerical strength. The island has no roads, however, it is inundated with enormous swamps and treacherous jungle, which surrounds the mountains. It must be taken.


The Armada, under Admiral Fletcher passes the enemy shoreline during the night of the sixth, under a moonless sky. The Navy maneuvers precariously between the neck of water, separating the Savo Islands and Guadalcanal, approaching the fringes of Tulagi Bay, without a solitary Japanese shell being fired. The enemy silence works in reverse and causes some concern among the members of the Strike Force, which is happy, yet bewildered by the non-action of the defenders on Guadalcanal. The Vessels crash their way through the waves, approaching jump off hour. Some of the assault troops are curiously peering through binoculars at their new residence, although vision is blurred by both the darkness and the constant interruption of passing ships in the convoy. The backdrops of this massive undertaking are huge darkly colored mountains, which stand out in great contrast to the lighter color of the near morning sky. Guadalcanal is gradually moving to the forefront. as the ships move deeper into the Bay, passing Tulagi, situated to the east and the Florida Islands to the north, but still no enemy fire to induce a full throttle flow of adrenaline into the troops as they cruise southwardly.

U.S. Navy guns commence firing at 0614. Darkness and anxiety is replaced by furious fire and impatient troops. The first volley originates from a cruiser, followed by additional cruisers. The rumbling of thunderous guns, spewing large fiery shells, including tracers, which arc toward the landing sites add an ominous note to the invasion. Navy Gunners are joined by planes, which supplement the already multicolored skyline, giving the island an irridescent glow of death. One of the salvos hits a supply depot giving the exercise a magnificent finale.

By 0619, part of the armada (Admiral Turner), carrying General Rupertus’ Force, which will invade Tulagi, tails off to the left toward the objective. By this time the balance of the fleet has joined in the bombardment. The invasion timetable is pretty much on schedule. The Naval guns are still plastering the island at 0628, but a conspicuous raging fire to the front of the convoy attracts the attention of the men. The towering smoke turns out to be a Japanese vessel, which had gotten into the sights of the strafing planes. The schooner induces a mighty fire, as the cargo includes gasoline, and adds illumination to the American vessels, nearing the debarkation point, for the sprint by the Marines to the beach. At this time there is still no return enemy fire, against the armada, causing more intent thought, by the commanders of the invasion force. The immense bombardment startled the Japanese, catching them offguard totally. The entire area had been pummeled, without any reciprocal fire from the enemy. Cruisers continue to pour fire upon selected areas.

Close air support is afforded the 1st wave to hit the beaches, but the landing of the 5th Marines is completely unopposed at Guadalcanal (Beach Red). The First Marines, commanded by Colonel Cliftoon Cates, follow in Reserve. The Marines take full advantage of the lull and preparations are immediately taken to beat back an attack when it comes. Supplies pour ashore, including gasoline, ammunition and barbed wire. Within a couple of hours, the Marines have sent out extended patrols to scout the jungle. Others begin fortifying the perimeter with the wire and other obstacles, such as machine gun positions and foxholes. Communication systems are strung and preparations are made to attack and seize Henderson airfield, which they will accomplish, against no opposition on the following day. Later, Japanese Planes swarm in under a massive cloud cover several times and bomb the American shipping in the bay. Two of the enemy planes are destroyed American planes and one other by Anti-aircraft fire. The Marines spend a jittery night, consumed by jungle silence occasionally penetrated by a shot or volley, but more often by disgruntled Macaws and dive-bombing aedes and anopheles mosquitos.

The 7th Marines land on the Southern Solomons. During the day’s operations, the destroyer USS Mugford. is damaged by an enemy dive bomber. The 1st Raider Battalion, commanded by Colonel Merritt Edson, lands at Blue Beach, Tulagi. without incident and moves southeast, until heavy enemy resistance halts its progress at Hill 281 where the Japs hane entrenched themselves firmly in caves. The Second BatIaIion, 5th Marines, which had not landed with the 5th Marines on Guadalcanal, comes in behind the 1st Raider Battalion on Blue Beach. In addition, the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marines, hit the beach at the Southern portion of Florida Island, without meeting any opposition. At noon, the 1st Paratroop Battalion invades Gavutu and Tanambogo, clearing the majority of the two islets. The Paratroopers, assisted by the 2nd Marines, secure both Gavutu and Tanambogo by the following day.

On the 8th, Japanese Planes attached to the Eighth Fleet, under Admiral Gunichi Mikawa, arrive from Rabaul and swarm over the American transports at about noon and severely damage Allied naval operations in the vicinity of the Solomons. Suicide bombers hit the George F. Elliott (transport), inflicting enough damage that the U.S. scuttles the vessel. The USS Jarvis (destroyer) is also struck by a suicide bomber and damaged and the transport USS Barnett is struck by a torpedo. The USS Jarvis departs for Noumea, but it is never heard from again. During the night of the 8th, lasting into early morning of the 9th (Battle of Savo), the Japanese Eighth Fleet inflicts more punishment to the fleet, sinking the USS Astoria, Quincy and Vincennes (cruisers) and damaging other Allied vessels, while losing none themselves. Seventeen thousand of the 19,000 men make it to shore, before the support ships are forced to withdraw on the 9th, taking approximately one half of the 60-day supply of food and equipment with them, however, the Japanese have exhibited their night naval skills which becomes a costly lesson to the Yanks, who sustain over 1,200 men killed and over 700 wounded. Through some fortuitous luck, the U.S. transports are not attacked. The Americans have grasped a foothold on the islands and are there for the duration. The Marines fortify their positions quickly as they prepare for a bitter campaign. These tenacious men will learn the ways of jungle warfare quickly, deciphering the sounds of an animal and of the impostoring enemy, the cries of a wounded comrade and the ruse of a Japanese ambush.

As September settles down in the Solomons, 17,000 Marines control a 4-by-7 mile strip of Guadalcanal. Japanese continue to assault their positions and the Allied ships offshore, which are attempting to keep them resupplied, however, the Marines intend to hold their mosquito, snake infested paradise at all costs. Four Japanese carriers, with battle escorts, glide confidently through the sea, until they are confronted by two American Task Forces, commanded by the able Admiral Kinkaid, in the vicinity of Santa Cruz Islands on October 26th. The Japanese lose two Destroyers sunk, in addition to having two carriers and two Battleships damaged. The USS Hornet (carrier) is damaged and subsequently sunk by Japanese dive bombers.

The 164th U.S. Infantry, the first Army troops to assist the Marines on Guadalcanal, arrive on October 13th and initiate their part in the campaign, which will soon see the balance of the Americal Division arrive to relieve the Marines. On November 13th, the Japanese make another attempt to retake GuadalcanaI. The two opposing fleets confront each other in what is known as the Naval Battle of GuadalcanaI. The engaging vessels criss-cross each other at dangerously close distances, firing at point blank range. The U.S. loses two cruisers sunk and two damaged. The Japanese lose one battleship. On the 14th, patrol planes from the Enterprise spot another Japanese fleet approaching and inform headquarters. Land-based American bombers catapult from the airstrips and deliver a decisive blow to the encroaching enemy, sinking seven troop transports and damaging the remaining four. The remnants of the enemy fleet try to regroup and land on Guadalcanal, but yet another American Task Force, under Admiral Willis Lee, speeds across Iron Bottom Sound and crushes the flotilla, sinking another battleship and damaging two cruisers. The invasion is halted and the disoriented Japanese retire.

As each day passes, the fighting becomes more gruesome, but once the threat of another Japanese amphibious invasion is over, the Americans move swiftly, through the dense jungle terrain, until every Jap sniper is plucked from the trees and each enemy nest is destroyed by grenades, rifles and when necessary, the Yank’s second best friend; his silent and reliable bayonet. By early February, 1943, the Japanese evacuate approximately 12,000 troops from the northwestern tip of the island (Cape Esperance) as the triumphant U.S. secures the entire island by the ninth. The Americans, with Old Glory firmly entrenched, now share the island with monkeys, and mosquitoes. There are no live Japanese left to help celebrate the first American land victory and the first Japanese land defeat of the war. 

In conjunction, during the campaign to seize Guadalcanal, although there was constant combat, while the Marines continued to hold their ground, the Japanese initiated a massive attack to gain the advantage on 12 September at what became known as the BATTLE OF EDSON’S RIDGE (September 12th·14th 1942)–Three Japanese Destroyers and a light cruiser, lurking in the Sealark Channel, commence a bombardment of Henderson Field. This naval barrage is supplemented by a major enemy assault against Marine positions on Edson’s Ridge, in the western sector south of Henderson.

The Marines (800 men), commanded by Colonel Merritt Edson, are greatly outnumbered against the Japanese, who temporarily penetrate the Raider Parachute Battalion’s positions on the 13th. Through the daylight hours, Japanese snipers ring the perimeter with shots, keeping all Marines on edge through the night. Major Kenneth Bailey, commanding Company C, on the right flank, leads his men in a fight of gruesome hand to hand combat for ten grueling hours, after the enemy penetrates the main line of defense, during the first assault soon after nightfall. Major Bailey, suffering gravely from a head wound, insists on maintaining command and leading his men. His troops, along with the other defenders, hang tough against no less than twelve brutalizing assaults throughout the night.

Old Glory is victorious over the Samauri Bandits. As the sun rises on the 14th, exhausted, but enthusiastic Marines, their strength barely over two full Companies, have wrecked Kawaguchi’s force, numbering over two full battalions. As the remaining Japanese evacuate the slopes of what is now called “Bloody Ridge,” heading toward Kokumbona, aircraft blast them with machine gun fire and bombs. Henderson Field remains in control of the Marines and 600 dead Japanese line the perimeter. The Marines sustain 143 casualties. Colonel Edson and Major Bailey both become recipients of the Medal of Honor for their valiant efforts. Bailey receives the Medal posthumously.

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Lou Sessinger in Iraq.

Lou Sessinger is a former Marine (Vietnam combat veteran), now retired from the newspaper industry and enjoying his grandchildren. This is an interview of Lou regarding his visit with the troops in Iraq. Enjoy the podcast.

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This Day in Korea July 31 1950

This post is excerpted from The Korean war, An Exhaustive Chronology By Bud Hannings. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers Jefferson, North Carolina, and London. 2007

This post details one day in Korea in 1950, on 31 July 1950, slightly more than one month after the North Korean Army invaded South Korea. At this time, the U. S. 8th Army is experiencing great difficulty. This grueling conflict continued into 1953 and it was initially called a “Police Action” by President Harry S Truman. The North Koreans are very close to pushing Eighth Army into the sea. However, during early August, the First Marine Brigade arrives and although they are not given a hearty greeting by the GIs or the sailors, within one week, the Marines became welcome guests. Also, the post is mostly taken verbatim; however, at times certain portions, due to space restraints, are left out. There is an extraordinary amount of activity in Korea on a daily basis, which makes it necessary to at times shorten some details.

 July 31 1950–In Korea, General Walker, while preparing to move his forces to the Pusan perimeter, continues to focus on the U.S. troops’ apparent lackadaisical attitude toward his orders to maintain contact with the enemy. Walker reiterates the instructions and on the 2nd of August, the situation then compels him to enunciate it again, more pointedly, to his divisional officers. In other activity, Chinju falls to North Korean Communists, placing them about 50 miles from the beleaguered bastion of Pusan. A battalion of the 29th Regimental Combat Team had pushed toward the embattled town, but it is ambushed several miles outside of Hadong. Fierce and heroic combat ensues, but the outnumbered unit is severely thrashed, taking extremely heavy casualties. Desperate decisions must be made to prevent the fall of Pusan. Circumstances are grave. General Walker, keenly aware of the condition of the exhausted 24th Division under General John H. Church, orders it to hold in place near Chinju. The 34th Regiment pulls out of its positions and redeploys behind the 2!st Regiment. General Church directs Colonel Stephens to assume command of both regiments. Also, Stephens redeploys the ROK !7th Regiment, placing one battalion on each flank of the U.S. troops and the third is kept in reserve.

     In other activity, General Craig, USMC, and Lt. Colonel Joseph Stewart (G-3) take a jeep and drive southwest to reconnoiter the ground, previously observed from the air, to which the Marine brigade is likely to be committed {The First Marine brigade has not yet arrived from the United States}. Upon his return, Craig is informed by Eighth Army that the 5th Regimental Combat Team, recently arrived from Hawaii, is to be attached to the !st Provisional Marine Brigade, giving Craig two regiments.

Elements (Company A) of the 89th Medium Tank Battalion arrive from Japan by sea at Pusan. The commanding officer Colonel Dolvin, arrives by air and meets the troops on the dock. From Pusan, Dolvin’s contingent departs for Masan and joins the U.S. troops there on the following day.

 Central Mountain area: Near Sangju, the North Koreans surge forward, unleashing probing strikes against the 24th Regiment, prompting the folding of a forward outpost. First Lt. Leon A. Gilbert, A Company commander, and about fifteen other defenders make a hurried retreat to the regiment and upon their return, Colonel H. White and several more officers of high rank order Gilbert to return to his post, but he declines, responding that he “is scared.” In his place, a noncommissioned officer leads the men back to their positions. The regiment holds its line throughout the day. After dark, the 24th Regiment makes a disciplined withdrawal, moving through Sangju, covered by the !st Battalion, 35th Regiment (25th Division), which had just recently arrived to shore up the rear.

 In other activity, Major Woolridge’s unorthodox roadblock is lifted today; on each day during its operation, about 75 men attempting to smuggle themselves into Sangju are snagged, and on the final day of the sting (30th), !50 men are rejoined with their outfits. Following eleven days on the line against the advancing enemy, primarily the N.K. !5th Division, the 24th Regiment has sustained a total of 27 men killed, 293 wounded and 3 men missing. In contrast, the North Korean 15th Division, according to information acquired from captured enemy troops, sustained severe losses from a combination of the air strikes.

    The incessant artillery bombardments and mortars as the enemy drives against the ROK and U.S. 24th Regiment allegedly deplete their strength by about half (5,000 men) by July 31. The N.K. !3th Division, which had bypassed Hamch’ang, encounters only a few minor skirmishes with elements of the 2nd Battalion, 35th Regiment, and various ROK contingents, resulting in extremely light casualties. Also, the balance of the 25th Division is ordered to initiate an immediate forced march to bolster the 24th Division and ensure that the Communists don’t penetrate any farther.

     On the following day the 25th Division, deployed near Sangju, receives new orders. In addition, the 1st Cavalry Division must contain the enemy on both the central and northwestern fronts. The cavalry becomes engaged in bloody combat around Kumch’on, but again the overwhelming numbers of enemy troops push them back. By daybreak, a detachment of enemy troops infiltrates the 8th Engineer Combat Battalion’s command post, slaying four troops, including the battalion executive officer. In conjunction, 6 others are wounded. Close by, about !,000 yards away, lies the command post of the 1st Cavalry Division. The enemy launches an attack against the positions of the 7th Cavalry, northwest of Kumch’on, but it is interrupted by intense fire originating from U.S. ground forces and planes. The combination inflicts great punishment, including the immediate destruction of thirteen enemy tanks caught crossing open space and a slower death for six additional tanks put to flames. Nearby at Chirye, the N.K. 8th Regiment, 3rd N.K. Division, arrives to augment the N.K. 7th Regiment. Enemy artillery perched in the heights overlooking the town unleashes heavy shelling, making the American positions untenable, thereby prodding them to evacuate quickly.

     It had originally been estimated that between 90,000 and !30,000 crack North Korean troops had invaded South Korea, and today, General MacArthur announces that the estimated number of Communist casualties stands at more than 30,000. In the N.K. 3rd Division, which has been engaged in heavy combat with the 1st Cavalry Division, numbers have dwindled from about 7,000 men to 5,000 during the ten days it has been pushing the 1st Cavalry from Yongdong. During the same period of time, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division sustains 78 killed, 4!9 wounded and 419 missing.

 In the West Coast Sector, east of Chinju, the 1st Battalion, 19th Regiment, remains at the Chinju Pass. Artillery support will arrive later in the day. At Chinju, Colonel Moore prepares to evacuate just after daybreak; the enemy strikes aggressively against the western fringes of the town and hostile small arms fire is clattering at a rapid pace. Six enemy armored vehicles pierce the thin shield, entering the town. The armor begins plastering U.S. positions while trailing infantry, including snipers, quickly add to the dilemma, but the troops under Colonel Moore retain their composure. The withdrawal of the 19th Regiment remains orderly.

     The U.S. heavy equipment—the !3th Field Artillery Battalion (minus Battery A) and Battery B, 11th Field Artillery Battalion—begin heading east by 0640. In conjunction, trains heading east have been salvaging the 19th Regiment’s supplies (25 rail cars total). The last of five such rail convoys departs at 0745, sent off by Major Jack Emery (S-4). The command post staff departs at 0800, moving to new positions at Chiryongni, about one mile beyond the Much’on-ni–Masan Road fork and about twelve air miles east of Chinju. The journey is hampered by obstacles, including the destruction of the primary bridge span over the Nam River at the southern tip of Chinju and the alternate routes clogged with refugees.

     Although the greater part of the !9th Regiment has departed Chinju and ROK sources account for the capture of Chinju at 0900, one defiant U.S. contingent remains—three M-26 Pershing tanks, led by Lieutenant Sam Fowler. The tanks, not committed to the defense of Chinju, had been waiting for new fan belts to solve an ongoing problem. Fowler is under orders to destroy the tanks, but he and his twelve crewmen are holding tight, hoping for a train with flatcars, which never shows. The engine passes through Masan, but is unable to depart Chungam-ni. Slightly after noon, a South Korean soldier passes the rail yard, noting that the town contains only several S.K. troops. He suggests to the Americans that they move out.

      Soon after, an AP correspondent, William Moore, urges Lieutenant Fowler to glance north at an approaching unidentified column moving along the tracks. After a South Korean trooper calls for identification, an interpreter is no longer necessary. The contingent is North Korean. The tankers commence firing, spreading a steady stream of machine gun shells into the enemy ranks, thinning the platoon. But a burst of return rifle fire wounds Fowler. Still determined to keep the Pershings, the troops place Fowler in a tank and drive east toward Masan. About two miles down the highway, they encounter a destroyed bridge and are forced to abandon the tanks.

     As the tanks are being destroyed, a concealed enemy contingent posted near the bridge suddenly commences firing. One man, Master Sergeant Shrader, having reached an operable tank, unleashes its .30-caliber machine gun to cut the odds. The enemy ambush has devastated the small contingent of Americans. Shrader ceases firing his machine gun and nudges the tank close to one of the others, quickly picking up six men and then heading back toward Chinju. Along the way, the surviving tank overheats (bad fanbelt) at a bridge over the Nam River. The seven occupants dart through the nearby bamboo, eventually reaching the sanctuary of the 25th Division lines west of Masan.

     Some of the original contingent had been killed at the bridge and others are killed or captured attempting to flee to safety. One captured soldier later relates that he saw several bodies floating in the water. He recognized one as Lieutenant Fowler and another as William Moore, the Associated Press correspondent. The first three Pershing tanks (M-26 Medium) to enter Korea and the first three to go down in combat leave a valiant legacy from the courage of their crews at Chinju.

     Early estimates of the enemy troops that seize control of the town are 2,000, but a subsequent report that arrives from a Korean source toward the end of the night numbers the force at approximately 4,000. As the evacuation is unfolding, 24th Division Headquarters is buzzing. Air strikes throughout the day torch Chinju, igniting ravaging fires. Meanwhile, the 2nd Battalion (!9th Regiment) heads along the road north of the Nam, regrouping at Uiryong during the night, while the 3rd Battalion (29th Regiment) and the artillery evacuate north of the Nam River and cross to the south bank at Uiryong, then reorganize at Komamni (Saga).

     After a short while, an aircraft dispatched by General Church passes overhead and drops a succinct order to the artillery: return to the Chinju vicinity. Colonel Rhea’s 1st Battalion, 19th Regiment, holding the pass, is pleased to see the eight !55-mm howitzers (11th Field Artillery, Battery B) and Battery (!3th Field Artillery) five 105-mm howitzers roll up to the pass from the east.

     At this same time, troops east of Chinju Pass at Much’on, Colonel Moore establishes his command post just outside of the village. Meanwhile Colonel Wilson reaches Chunggam-ni, but he was expected at Haman, about 30 miles distant. He is told by a South Korean officer that “The Reds are just seven miles behind us and will get here tonight.” Wilson, after a discussion with his staff, decides to move across the mountains to reach Haman. The several wounded members of the battalion are placed in the jeeps between the mass of mortars, machine guns and radios. All personal effects of the troops are disposed of before heading into the mountains. By about 0200 (Aug. 1), the column reaches Masan-ni at the final north-south road by which the Communist forces from Chinju could intercept the 1st Battalion, bringing a sigh of relief for the weary troops.

     In other activity, Colonel Michaelis arrives at the 24th Division positions in Changnyong, but General Church, to whom he is to report, has gone to Chungni. General Menoher, assistant division commander, directs Michaelis to proceed and meet General Church at the village of Changnyong, which lies about four miles northeast of Masan. In the meantime, the 27th Regiment is on the march, moving toward Chinju Pass. Colonel Michaelis meets with General Church and they are joined by Colonel Moore (19th Regiment), who is transported to the railroad station meeting place from his command post near Chinju Pass by a divisional courier. Moore arrives prior to midnight ( July 31-Aug. 1). Circumstances of the time preclude a clear accounting of the precise orders received by Michaelis and Moore from General Church, as no written notes are taken. Apparently, Colonel Michaelis is to deploy his 27th Regiment at the Chinju Pass along the northern spur of the Masan Road, a few miles west of Chungamni, and Colonel Moore is to retain his 1st Battalion, 19th Regiment, led by Colonel Rhea, in place at Chinju Pass. Subsequent to the conference, Colonel Michaelis remains in Chung-ni until his rain-drenched regiment arrives at about 0300. Then after ordering the regiment to continue to Chungam-ni where it is to fortify the high ground, Michaelis and several officers head for another pass, located southwest of Chungam-ni, arriving there just after dawn. Meanwhile, Colonel Moore departs for Much’on-ni.

     In other activity, the 5th Regimental Combat Team, with a full complement of three battalions, arrives at Pusan to bolster Eighth Army, bringing with it the 555th Field Artillery Battalion and a contingent of Pershing M-26 tanks. Upon arrival at Pusan, the 5th RCT is ordered to move to Masan on the southwest flank of the Eighth Army. Advance contingents arrive the following night and the remainder of the regiment arrives by August 2. The 5th RCT, initially, was to be attached to the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, but it is to be attached to the 25th Division and reverts to Eighth Army reserve. In addition, the 9th Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, arrives in Pusan. Its 2nd Battalion, the first contingent of U.S. troops to embark for Korea from the States, left Tacoma, Washington, on July 17. The 9th Regiment, commanded by Colonel John G. Hill, is supported by the 15th Field Artillery Battalion. It departs for Kyongsan about ten miles south of Taegu and upon arrival reverts to Army reserve.

     The battle casualties for the U.S. Army from arrival in Korea through July 31 stand at 1,884 killed, 2,695 wounded, 523 missing and 901 assumed captured. More than half of the total losses are incurred by the 24th Division (first to enter Korea); about 80 percent of these casualties occur during the last half of July. The South Korean casualty figures are not totally known. Genuine estimates place them at about 70,000, including killed, wounded and missing. Although many of the South Korean units had retreated in a disoriented fashion, many others were inflicting great punishment on the enemy in the mountains. North Korean casualties, according to estimates by the Intelligence Section of MacArthur’s Headquarters, are placed at about 31,000. The Department of the Army lists enemy casualties for the same time period at 37,500. Both estimates are based on information from captured prisoners and seized documents, but the more accurate number is probably closer to 58,000; the low estimates by the Americans are due partly to their underestimation of the ROK operations against the North Koreans. These figures on enemy battle casualties are considered more accurate than those compiled by the U.N. representatives.

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This Day in the Civil war 7 31 1861


This post is excerpted from Every Day of the Civil War, A Chronological Encyclopedia By Bud Hannings. McFarland Publishing, Incorporated, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. 2010

July 31 1861–(Wednesday) In Louisiana, Confederate colonel George N. Holland assumes command of the naval station at New Orleans. He succeeds Commander L. Rousseau.

In Missouri, one day after the offices of governor, lieutenant governor and secretary of state had been declared vacant, Hamilton Gamble is elected governor in place of Claiborne Jackson, a pro-Confederate governor.

In Confederate general officer activity, Lt. Colonel Gabriel J. Rains (West Point, 1827), 5th U.S. Infantry, resigns his commission with the intent to join the Confederacy. Rains is appointed brigadier general the following September.

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The USS Parche and the USS Steelhead

This is the story of two US submarines, the USS Parche and the USS Steelhead, while operating off Formosa during July (30-31)1944. Rear Admiral Ramage received the Medal of Honor for his heroism during the mission.

The story of the USS Ramage is excerpted from A Portrait of the Stars and Stripes, Volume II, by Bud Hannings. Glenside Pennsylvania: Seniram Publishing. 1991.

July 31 1944 (In the Pacific)–During the previous day (30 July), the USS Steelhead had been tracking a Japanese convoy, but the Japanese Air Force prevented an attack. Captain, W. H. WeIchel transmits the information and probable course to the USS Parche at 2015. At midnight, the Steelhead closes quietly. Meanwhile, the Parche streaks along the surface to join the hunt. At just after 0330, the Steelhead fires six torpedoes toward a complacent tanker and a non-cantankerous oversized freighter; within moments there is a loud roar and water is surging upward amidst swirls of black smoke pronouncing the rupture and demolition of the tanker.

A Freighter is also struck by the volley. The Steelhead then fires six more torpedoes at another freighter. The Japanese react and catapult signal flares into the air. The galloping Porche sees the alarm as clearly as the Japanese. Commander Lawson P. Ramage blares orders mandating full steam ahead. Ramage is about to give the Japs an expensive lesson about the U.S. Navy. With Japanese flares in abundance throughout the night sky, the Parche heads directly for the enemy, unleashing a mighty blow at a target less than 500 yards away. The Porche maneuvers to avoid the charging enemy Ship. causing its torpedoes to miss when the enemy takes evasive action, but the Porche’s motion places her within killing range of two freighters.

Immediately, Commander “Red” Ramage attacks and the first freighter is blown to oblivion. The Porche retains her momentum and swerves toward the two tankers. Unhesitatingly, the Porche closes and torpedoes are again fired, four heading for the lead tanker and three for the trailer. The first blow destroys the lead vessel, but the other three strike in rapid succession, causing the tanker, now in sections to plummet to the bottom, leaving only burning oil to attest to its prior existence.

The other Tanker is crippled by two hits, and slowly limps away, its crew yelping several unprintable quotes concerning the U.S. Navy. Meanwhile, Japanese escort vessels close in on the Parche, but the valiant vessel reacts by firing more torpedoes, and another transport ship is struck. Ramage, in calculated calmness, orders his men below as enemy escorts close tighter, but he remains on deck to continue this masterful attack.

The Parche is firing torpedoes at the enemy like a lawman from the Old West, unloading his six shooters, while riding horseback. The Parche maneuvers left and right, then right to left, testing the skill and the nerves of the crew, who are unrelenting. while maintaining their precision movements. It is a modernized version of a nineteenth century sea duel, with an outgunned and outnumbered Yankee warship humiliating and whipping the enemy.

The Japanese by this time, are understandably bewildered at the audacity fo these sailors aboard the Parche. The Warship, which caused Ramage to order his crew below deck, approaches to ram the submarine, but Ramage again evades, avoiding a collision by about fifty feet, equivalent to a cat’s hair, by any mariner’s standards. Suddenly, the submarine is surrounded by Japanese warships and a tanker is dead ahead, moving toward the Parche with the determination of a seagoing Kamikaze. Unperturbed, Ramage orders three “DOWN THE THROAT” shots, halting the raging tanker; he follows with another killing blow, succinctly terminating the futile voyage. Satisfied that there are no more targets of value in the near vicinity, the Porche, heads for calmer seas, its crew exhausted, but victorious and unharmed.

The remnants of the beleaguered convoy departs also, coincidentally heading toward the Steelheod, which pumps a few torpedoes into a passenger cargo vessel and dispatches another volley toward a large freighter. The freighter sinks as a Japanese plane comes over during the early morning dusk, prompting the Stealhead to dive deep prematurely, giving the remaining passenger cargo vessel an extended life. The devastation sustained by the Japanese shipping during this abrupt encounter, according to a post war inquest held by the Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee: the Parche receives credit for sinking the Koei Moru (tanker) and the Manko Moru (passenger-cargoman). The Parche receives shared credit with the Steelhead on the sinking of the Yoshino Moru (transport) and the Steelhead is also credited with the destruction of the freighter Daku Maru and the transport Fuso Mara.

Commander (later Vice Admiral) Lawson Patterson Ramage receives the Medal of Honor for his extraordinary leadership and courage in battle. Within 46 minutes, his submarine had fired nineteen torpedoes and registered fourteen or fifteen hits, while rampaging through a virtual wall of severe enemy fire, and bringing the Parche through unscathed. Subsequently, when the author asked Rear Admiral Lawson where he got his extraordinary courage, he responded: “I DIDN’T NEED COURAGE. MY FAMILY WAS WITH ME IN PEARL HARBOR WHEN THE JAPANESE ATTACKED. I SIMPLY WAITED FOR THE OPPORTUNITY AND TOOK PROPER ACTION.”

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This Day in the French and Indian War.

The French and Indian War, known as The Seven Years war in Europe, was actually a conflict that finally concluded a long running struggle for more than 200 years to determine which European nation, France or England would dominate North America. It was actually a  World War fought primarily by the French and her allies against the English and he r allies in Europe, Africa and India.

More than 100 Americans who participated in the conflict became either general officers or famous politicians in the American Revolution.

We hope you enjoy the post and we thank you for the comments.

On This Day in the French and Indian War–Excerpted from The French and Indian War, A Complete Chronology By Bud Hannings. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina. 2011

July 30 1755 (Wednesday) In New York, Governor Shirley, while advancing along the Mohawk River toward Oswego, is informed by a letter from Sir William Johnson of General Braddock’s defeat and death at Fort Duquesne. Shirley’s son had been with Braddock and he had also been killed. Word of the disaster spreads among Shirley’s force and the troops had already been less than enthusiastic about their mission, but the distressing news causes more complications as men begin to desert in large numbers. Shirley’s force numbers only about 1,500 men, including the 50th (Shirley’s regiment) and the 51st (Pepperell’s regiment), along with 500 New Jersey troops, supported by a ever-decreasing contingent of Indians. Shirley—who left Schenectady on the 29th with 100 troops, 150 boat men and 40 Indians—does not reach Oswego until 18 August.

In other activity, Sir William Johnson dispatches a letter to Lt. Governor James DeLancey, in which Johnson proposes to go to the Six Nation territory to prevent losing their allegiance or to have the Indians meet with him at Onondaga. Johnson also urges that Shirley should first attack Cadaraqui (Kingston, Ontario, Fort Frontenac) to reduce it or capture the post before assaulting Niagara. Also, Shirley after learning of Braddock’s death, directs Dunbar to move against Fort Duquesne. One account explains why Dunbar could not accomplish that: “Had he set out at once for Fort Duquesne, it would have been mid–November before he could hope to reach it. If by a miracle, he captured it, a waste of snow-covered hills, a hundred and fifty miles of forest full of hostile savages, still barred him from Presque Isle. And could a repetition of miracles have enabled him to gain that point, there was nothing to expect, when miracles ceased, but starvation.”

In the meantime, while advancing toward Oswego, Shirley continues to attempt to get the Six Nations to join him. Shirley pauses at two separate castles and in condescending tone, he informs the occupants that he is under orders of the king, whom he refers to as their father, “to recover your country on the north side of the Lakes Ontario and Erie for you from the French; the chief command in the execution of which is committed to me.” After telling the Indians he was to recapture their lands, Shirley continues: These lands you well know, brethren, by authentic deeds placed among the records of New York, were surrendered by your ancestors into the hands of the great King your Father, for his Majesty to protect for them and their descendants for ever. Nothing, therefore, brethren, now remains wanting to restore the Indians of the Five Nations to their former possessions, and ancient superiority which they maintained over the other Indians upon this continent before the French (our and their avowed enemies) found means by their artifices to break their united state, and afterwards draw some of them off from their obedience to the great King their father, but to reunite and strengthen his hands in recovering his children’s country for them and driving the French out of it. The natives; however, found contradiction in Shirley’s eloquence in first calling the land to be that of the Indians, followed by telling them the territory belonged to the king of England.

In Virginia, Draper’s Meadows on the frontier is raided by Shawnee. The village is ravaged. Many of the settlers, including women and children, are massacred and some are taken away as captives.

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National Archives

We recently heard from the National Archives. The Archives has accepted my latest work, The French and Indian war. The latest work has pushed me over the five million words published and each of the works has ben selected by the National Archives. Not too bad for the world’s most unknown author.

Meanwhile, with school once again getting close, if the subject is U. S. Historty (From the French and Indian war to the Korean War, you might want to visit our blog to check it out and get one of the books from your local library.

The Books: Forts of the United States; The Korean War; Leaders of the American Revolution; Chronology of the American Revolution; Portrait of the Stars and Stripes (covers period 1770s through the end of World war One; Portrait of the Stars and Stripes Volume II (World War II) and the Story of the American Flag, known as my military sidekick.


The major wars are covered on a daily basis. Check out the battles and the men who fought them. You can check on the 6,000 forts established from the beginning of the country until the end of the nineteenth century. You can folow the generals and admirals and even a regiment. You can follow the U.S. Armed forces and realize why the United States is the greatest nation on earth and why tyrants will never rule the world as long as the Stars and Stripes remains at the mast.

My guess is that you also realize the magnificent deeds performed by her warriors in defenseof freedom, that the press has a tendency to omit from there publications.

The Stars and Stripes is more than a nation’s colors. She is the symbol of the countless millions of Americans that have sacrificed to save many nations, including France, Italy, England from defeat in two World Wars.

You are part of the great legacy. Be proud and support your Armed Forces. They keep you and your families free.

Check out our blog http://usmilitaryhistory.com/seniram and leave a comment.




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This Day In The Civil War 7 22 1861


One day following the clash at Manassas (Bull Run), both sides realize there will be no quick settlement.

July 22 (Monday) In Washington, D.C., it is apparent that the southern insurrection will not be over in a short period of time. The conflict is to be a war of rebellion. President Abraham Lincoln calls for an army of 555,000 men to volunteer for a period of three years. In other activity, the large casualties sustained by both sides at the battle on the previous day prompt improvisation to acquire available hospital space to treat the wounded. One such facility is the Union General Hospital in Georgetown, Washington, D.C., which had been formerly known as the Union Hotel. Union troops in these hospitals and those in the field are quickly learning that since their stay away from home is lasting much longer than anticipated, communication with and from their families becomes a priority. Express companies such as the Adams Express Company pop into existence to deliver parcels and mail to the soldiers, lifting their spirits.

In Arkansas,

Confederate General William Joseph Hardee, also known as “Old Reliable,” at about this time becomes commander of the Confederate forces in Arkansas.

In Missouri,

troops attached to General Thomas Sweeny—the 1st Iowa Volunteers, 2nd Kansas Volunteers, the Stanley Dragoons (Captain David S.) and Captain James Totten’s Battery—clash with Confederates at Forsyth in a skirmish that lasts about one hour. The Union sustains three wounded. The Confederates sustain five killed.

In West Virginia,

Confederate General Loring arrives at Monterey and assumes command of the Army of the Northwest.

In Union general officer activity,

Thomas Ogden Osborn (later brigadier general) is commissioned lieutenant colonel of the 39th Illinois Infantry Regiment at about this time. On 1 January he is appointed colonel of the regiment. Also, David Stuart, a lawyer and former Congressman, is commissioned lieutenant colonel (later brigadier general) of the 42nd Illinois Infantry Regiment. Also, Horatio Phillips Van Cleve (West Point, 1831), who left the army during 1836, is commissioned colonel (later brevet major general) of the 2nd Minnesota Infantry Regiment.

This battle is excerpted from Every Day of the Civil War, A Chronological Encyclopedia By Bud Hannings. McFarland Publishing, Incorporated, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. 2010

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First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)

This battle is excerpted from Every Day of the Civil War, A Chronological Encyclopedia By Bud Hannings. McFarland Publishing, Incorporated, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. 2010 

The Union and the Confederates clash in the conflict’s first major engagement on 21 July, 1861:

July 21 (Sunday) FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN (MANASSAS) Roaring Union cannon announce the beginning of the battle in Virginia, as Union troops struggle forward against darkness on small, unfamiliar roads toward their objective. When the Union guns strike the Rebels under Colonel Nathan George Evans (West Point 1848) at Stone Bridge on the left flank of the Confederate positions, Evans, believing the attack to be the main event, calls for reinforcements. Meanwhile, the guns of the Fifth Artillery, in support of Daniel Tyler’s First Division, maintain their fire. Evans, believing the main attack will strike his left flank, decides at 0830 to redeploy his force. He leaves four companies of Colonel John B.E. Sloan’s 4th South Carolina Regiment to hold the bridge, taking the remainder of the regiment, five Companies of Major C.R. Wheat’s Louisiana battalion and two guns of Latham’s battery, to the Brentsville Road to intercept the expected assault. In addition, Colonel Philip George St. Cocke’s 5th Brigade is deployed at Ball’s Ford, and with the absence of Evans, the 5th Brigade holds the line near the Stone Bridge until just prior to the arrival of Colonel Arnold Elzey’s reinforcements (1st Maryland Infantry).

Colonel (later general) Nathan Evans’ decision to move proves to be a large plus for the Confederates, as by redeploying his force they stand as a solid line against the Yankees. Meanwhile, the 5th Brigade attacks on the left and performs extremely well. While the Union is maintaining the rear attack at Stone Bridge, Colonel Ambrose Burnside, following a tough journey on nasty roads, brings up his 2nd Brigade, Second Division, arriving at about 1000. Nevertheless, the Confederates hold the line for nearly one hour of incessant firing. The Confederates under Pierre G.T. Beauregard and Jackson had in the meantime realized that the assault against Stone Bridge is a diversionary tactic, and troops from Colonel Nathan Evans’ command temporarily stifle the main Union advance, led by General Irvin McDowell.

Upon the arrival of Colonel William T. Sherman’s 3rd Brigade, First Division, and shortly thereafter the tardy arrival of General Samuel P. Heintzelman’s 3rd Division, the Union plunges forward as the Confederate lines begin to falter under the pressure. Contingents of Colonel Andrew Porter’s 1st Brigade, Second Division, arrive to further bolster the Union.

Confederate reinforcements under Generals Bernard E. Bee and Francis S. Bartow rush to stem the tide, to no avail. By about 1200, the Confederates withdraw to a point south of Stone Bridge. Meanwhile, Colonel Ambrose Burnside’s brigade has expended its full supply of ammunition. The 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, led by Colonel Oliver O. Howard, remains in the fight. The 1st Brigade, First Division, under Erasmus Darwin Keyes, is to hold the road leading to Manassas. Keyes and the 3rd Brigade, First Division, under William T. Sherman, are still on the move. The southerners retreat in disarray to Henry House Hill where Jackson’s brigade is holding firm, bolstered by thirteen guns widely distributed around the area.

With the influx of troops, Jackson is now bolstered by the brigades of Bartow, Bee and Nathan G. Evans. General Bee shouts, “There stands Jackson like a stone wall. Rally behind the Virginians.” Bee’s encouragement coupled with the arrival of Johnston and Beauregard permits time for the Confederates to pull their disorganized troops together.

The rejuvenated Rebels are zealously inspired by Jackson and prepared to drive the exhausted Yankees back to Washington. Near Henry House, atop the hill that dominates the terrain, the New York Zouaves (late Colonel E.E. Ellsworth’s Regiment), supported by artillery of Charles Griffin and James B. Ricketts, launch a charge to secure the hill, but they are intercepted by a defiantly bold Alabama regiment that has no intention of folding. The artillery is put out of action during the first barrage of fire, preventing any further advancement, and the batteries become jeopardized.

The Rebels then strike the flank of the Zouaves, while two detachments of the Confederate Black Horse Cavalry pound against their rear, prompting a quick displacement of the Zouaves. General Heintzleman directs the 1st Michigan and the 1st Minnesota Regiments to support the batteries, now naked, and retrieve the men, but neither can overcome the opposition to extricate either the guns or the artillerymen. Jackson repeatedly attempts to retrieve the guns, but without success, as the Zouaves and the New York 35th Regiment keep them at bay. Eventually, it is the Yankees who retrieve the guns.

While this action continues, Colonel William T. Sherman’s brigade launches an assault to secure the Confederate batteries on the plateau that are hammering the Union attack, but following several attempts, the force of opposition compels Sherman to order a pull-back; during this heated battle, Colonel Michael Corcoran of the New York 69th Militia Regiment is wounded and captured. Colonel James Cameron, brother of the secretary of war and commanding officer, 79th New York Regiment, is also killed.

The devastation of the day spares neither side, as the Confederates also sustain horrible casualties. Generals Barnard E. Bee and Francis Bartow, leading the 4th Alabama and the 8th Georgia Regiments respectively, are both lost in the battle. The Confederates have also stymied the attempts of the 2nd Maine and the 3rd Connecticut under Colonels Charles D. Jameson and Chatfield, respectively, who attack to put eight guns entrenched at Robinson’s buildings, but all attempts fail and the units are forced to retire.

By 1500, the Union force is nearly drained. The reserves, including by this time Burnside’s brigade, which has been out of action since about noon, and Colonel Schenck’s Brigade at Stone Bridge, are not called upon. And with the failure of Robert Patterson to corral Johnston at Winchester, the Confederates’ ranks expand with the influx of reinforcements, including General Kirby Smith’s command, the 6th N.C. Regiment commanded by Colonel Charles F. Fisher, and contingents of Colonel Arnold Elzey’s brigade along with additional artillery. All of this Confederate strength faces Irvin McDowell’s overtired 13,000 remaining troops, none of whom have bolted across Bull Run since 1200.

The Confederates, although equally exhausted from the grueling fighting, also have the advantage of defending positions. Beauregard orders an attack to penetrate McDowell’s right flank and slice into his rear, hoping to finish the job before both sides are forced through exhaustion to disengage. Colonel Elzey—leading the 10th, 13th and 28th Virginia, the 1st Maryland (his regiment), the 2nd and 8th South Carolina and the 3rd Tennessee—initiates a thunderous attack against the Union flank and soon recovers the plateau. In a synchronized maneuver, General Jubal A. Early, commanding the 24th Virginia Infantry, jack-hammers the rear, causing the seams of the Union lines, except for eight companies of regulars under Colonel George Sykes, to collapse.

General Jacob A. Cox’s force of regulars covers the retreat, which to many seems totally undisciplined, but in fact, much has to do with the troops’ lacking proper drilling. This does lead to chaos and disorder, especially as the civilians who had come to observe the contest are fleeing along the same roads so desperately needed by the Union troops. Nevertheless, Cox’s troops hold the Rebels back until their positions become totally untenable.

While the Union troops are breaking for safety and the Confederates are in hot pursuit, all roads are leading toward Centreville and seemingly Confederate forces are blocking the routes at every point. Troops under Jubal Early, Jeb Stuart, Ellerbee Cash and Joseph Kershaw as well as John S. Preston, Wade Hampton (Gist Rifles/Hampton Legion) and James L. Kemper all join the chase, but it terminates as the Union makes it to Centreville Ridge. Beauregard con templates a continuance of the attack, but considering the condition of his own forces and the threatening skies, he aborts pursuit.

Meanwhile, General McDowell deploys a brigade at Cub Run on the Warrenton Road, and other contingents under Andrew Porter and Louis Blenker join it to intercept the Confederates if they continue the attack. At Centreville, it is decided to continue the retreat to Washington to protect the capital. The march commences prior to midnight and continues until the columns reach the capital during the early morning hours. Union Brigadier General Daniel Tyler (West Point, 1819), 1st Connecticut Infantry Regiment, in apparent reaction to his execution of orders during the contest, is mustered out of the army the following month.

Union losses at Bull Run amount to over 2,700 killed, wounded or missing. Battery D, 5th U.S. Artillery, loses every gun except one. Lt. Adelbert Ames (West Point, 1861) is seriously wounded while directing artillery fire. He refuses to leave the field and while atop a caisson he continues to direct the fire. He becomes a recipient of the Medal of Honor.

Also, Captain (later brigadier general) James B. Ricketts, in command of a battery, is wounded four separate times during the engagement and is captured then held until exchanged during January 1863. Also, Colonel Robert Cowdin (1st Massachusetts Infantry) is unscathed; however, his horse is shot from underhim and killed during the fighting. Colonel Orlando Bolivar Willcox (1st Michigan Infantry), leading a brigade (General Heintzelman’s division) is wounded after having led repeated charges, but he is also captured and held in captivity until August 1862. Colonel Willcox’s conduct does not go unnoticed, but his heroism in the field is not officially recognized until thirty-four years after the battle, when he becomes a recipient of the Medal of Honor on 2 March 1895.

Colonel (later major general) Henry Warner Slocum (27th New York) is wounded. In addition, Brigadier General George W. Taylor is mortally wounded while attempting to reach the bridge that spans Bull Run. His brigade lacks artillery and is struck by Confederate Colonel Isaac Trimble’s command, bolstered by two batteries. General Taylor dies in Alexandria on 1 September.

Confederate losses are over 1,900 killed, wounded, or missing, including Brigadier General Barnard Elliott Bee (West Point, 1845) and General Francis Bartow of the 7th Georgia Regiment. Bee is fatally wounded and succumbs on the following day at his headquarters. Confederate Colonel Clement H. Stevens, the brother-in-law of General Bee, is wounded during this action. Stevens will afterwards be elected colonel of the 24th South Carolina. Also, Confederate Lt. Colonel William Montgomery Gardner (West Point, 1846) is severely wounded. He remains on sick leave for about one year and afterward is unsuitable for field command. Nonetheless, he is promoted to brigadier general during the latter part of this year. Also, Colonel Charles F. Fisher, 6th North Carolina, is mortally wounded.

This first battle of Bull Run, witnessed by Confederate President Jefferson Davis, is a costly victory for the South. Many of the Union soldiers exhaust their ammunition during the contest and the defenses at Washington are fragile, but the Confederates fail to follow up their victory with pursuit. The Union quickly fortifies Washington to prepare it for an anticipated attack, which does not materialize.

During the federal retreat, Captain Richard Arnold (West Point, 1850 and later brigadier general) of the 5th Artillery loses all but one gun while covering the withdrawal. The surviving gun is saved by the heroic actions of Corporal Owen McGough, who becomes a recipient of the Medal of Honor for his gallantry under fire. Colonel (later brigadier general) Michael Corcoran, 69th New York Infantry, is wounded and captured. Corcoran, born in Ireland, has previously been subjected to a court-martial during 1860 for refusing a direct order to parade his command, known as the “Irish Legion,” past the Prince of Wales, who was visiting the United States. Also, Union Colonel Oliver Otis Howard (West Point, 1854) sees his command (four regiments) retreat in disarray, but headquarters in Washington promotes him to brigadier general during early September for his actions at Bull Run.

Union General William T. Sherman observes: “It is easy to criticize a battle after it is over, but all now admit that none others, equally raw in war, could have done better than we did at Bull Run.” A contingent of 365 Marines, including twelve officers, commanded by Major John C. Reynolds, participates as part of the Union Army’s 1st Brigade.



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Leatherneck Magazine Review Korea Book

Leatherneck Magazine’s Review of “The Korean War, by Bud Hannings was published  in the March 2008 Issue. The shortcut will take you to the review.


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Major General George S. Patton

While working to get this blog on the road, Major General Patton came to mind and it seemed appropriate to pay him some tribute by posting a little story about his time in service and his funeral service. He is yet another American hero who served our country admirably.

The following shortcut will take you to an interview of his that I hope you enjoy. General Patton’s wife (widow), Joanne, is a great American patriot who continues to dedicate much of her life to keeping patriotism alive. Mrs. Patton, the daughter of General Willard Holbrook (11th U. S. Armorded Division) once relayed to me the story of the Holbrook-Patton Flag. The 11th Armored Division reached the Danube opposite Linz, Austria. TF Wingard after taking Urfa-LinzIndustrial center at 1100, took Linz at 1800. Linz offered to surrender, but General Holbrook enterred the city first with only two troops and discovered white sheets flying from nearly every window. General Holbroook ordered the Stars and Stripes to be hoisted. Later, upon the death of General George S. Patton, during December 1945, a search was unleashed to find the Stars and Stripes that had penetrated to the furthermost eastern point. The flag that flew  at Linz was retrieved and used on the casket of General Patton. Coincidentally, Joanne, the daughter of General holbrook would later meet and marry the son of Patton, also named George S. Patton (later Major General ). The original flag was later discovered with the documents that unveiled the unknown story of its travels. That same flag was used at the funeral of General Holbrook when he was buried at West Point (July 1986). It was also borrowed by the city of Linz for their 50-year celebration.  Later, during 2004, the flag was reluctantly called upon one more time. The Holbrook-Patton flag as it is known arrived at Arlington and used during the ceremony of Major General George S. Patton on 27 August, 2004 when he was laid to rest. The Holbrook-Patton flag is now back at the Patton museum (Fort Knox, Kentucky).

This is a farewell tribute to Major General George S. Patton who passed away on June 27, 2004 and was later on 27 August 2004 interred at Arlington National Cemetery. The episode includes an interview with the general during 1991 and it includes a section regarding his funeral written by one of the men who served under him in Vietnam, BobHersey.

The Tribute to Major General George S. Patton:


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Bud Hannings

Bud Hannings Bud Hannings

 WEBSITE: http://usmilitarthistory.com for more information

 Hannings was born in Philadelphia on 5 June, 1942. He was educated in the Philadelphia
Catholic School system and soon after graduation in 1960, Hannings joined the United States Marine Corps Reserve and served in the Motor Pool through 1965.
 Hannings married Barbara Voneki during 1962 and together they had four children, three
daughters, Terri, Lori and Christine and one son, Joseph, the latter joining the Marines after
graduating high school in 1983.

 Hannings worked in the Trucking industry in marketing and later he established an independent agency that handled cross country shipments. During 1983, Hannings was elected to local office as a conservative Republican and served eight years as a commissioner of Abington Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.

 Hannings had long been interested in history and writing, but his first published piece (The
Eternal Flag) did not occur until the latter part of 1979, at the time the American hostages were seized in Teheran. Later, Hannings began a project to compile a concise book on the history of the American flag, but the project expanded greatly when Hannings continued to discover obscure items of various heroes of American history, which prompted him to approach a publisher, but to no avail. Hannings’ work was returned to his door several days after he sent the manuscript to the publisher. The publisher claimed his work was a “bad idea, trying to promote history, while promoting patriotism and historical sites at the same time.”

 Hannings, read the rejection letter, concluded the publisher was wrong and decided to do it on his own by establishing a publishing company. Soon after he founded Seniram Publishing Incorporated, located in Glenside, Pennsylvania. Seniram, coincidentally is Marines spelled backwards. When asked how he came up with the name, Hannings said he recalled hearing that when you select a name, pick one that can be spelled in various ways but still sound the same and he added that he didn’t expect people to remember such a small publisher, but once they spelled it backwards, they would not forget it.

Hannings did publish his first book, A Portrait of the Stars and Stripes and he discovered the
lessons he learned about distribution by an unknown publisher. Hannings also discovered that without a national reputation, the road to success was difficult, if not insurmountable. Friends, both civilian and in the military suggested that Hannings should have abandoned the publishing company and consider giving up writing. However, Hannings had not yet convinced himself that he had an unwinnable situation.

 Rather than quitting, he remembered the words of his drill instructors telling him that nothing
was insurmountable for a Marine and that Marines never quit. Hannings followed with a huge volume on World War II, composed of more than 900,000 words, which contained daily coverage of combat in all three theaters of the war. The book was a success with great reviews, however, wide distribution and recognition still remained in the distance. The thought of quitting continued to swirl around in Hannings’ head, but the idea of defeat didn’t.

 Hannings remained convinced that the endless line of military achievements and the innumerable amount of American heroes were being lost to obscurity. At the same time, he observed the flag being dishonored and the armed forces receiving either bad press or no press. Hannings decided to continue his work against the odds and with his instincts that it was important that the American heroes be remembered by posterity.

Later, Hannings left the trucking industry and faced a decision whether to start something new or devote all of his time to writing. He chose the latter. In the meantime, Hannings began to work with McFarland and Company, a publisher of scholarly works, located in Jeffersonville, North Carolina. Since that time, through McFarland, Hannings has published “Forts of the United States,” a history of the forts, camps and missions established in the United States over a 400-year period. Another, “The Korean War, an Exhaustive Chronology, which details the Korean War on a daily basis has also been released. These were followed by “The American Revolution, a Chronology,” composed of about 600,000 word was published during 2008 and his next piece, “Leaders of the
American Revolution, which provides a biography on just under 400 men. And yet another, “Every Day of the Civil War, A Chronological Encyclopedia, composed of just under 700,000 words was published during June of 2010.
 Hannings, more than 25 years after the original thought, finally published what he terms his little book on the flag (The Story of the American Flag) during 2001. The book, referred to as his “military sidekick” is a diminutive soft cover book, which is packed with interesting facts on the armed forces and the flag. It includes a chronology of the armed forces, a selection of quotes and other information including flag etiquette. It also includes the Declaration of Independence and the U. S. Constitution.

Hannings learned from the National Archives that his book, “Forts of the United States,” had been selected by the archives at its College Park facility and in Washington, D.C. as a reference source and he was informed that A Portrait of the Stars and Stripes and A Portrait of the Stars and Stripes, Volume II (World War II) have also been cataloged at the Archives as reference sources. In addition, the National Archives has selected the Korean War, An Exhaustive Chronology, the Chronology of the American Revolution and The Leaders of the American Revolution, Every Day of the Civil War  and The French and Indian War as part of their reference collection.

 Hannings has been writing for nearly thirty years and his plans are to complete other works that are in progress, including the War of 1812 and the Mexican War. Hannings sometimes takes a break from the tedious business of researching and relaxes by writing children’s books, a series of short stories, in which he uses his grand children and centers the stories around the youngest, Lauren. Lauren, the little heroine tells the stories of various saints through the eyes of a child.

Hannings is also working on a book on the Lives of the Saints and simultaneously he is writing yet another piece on the History of the Catholic Church with emphasis on the Church’s involvement with military actions through the ages including the Crusades and the various clashes with the Moslems and the Ottoman Empire. Hannings wants to provide a glimpse into the lives of the saints with sufficient information for a student to be able to turn in a report that can scan the entire life of the saints. 

Reviews Below WEBSITE: http://usmilitarthistory.com for more information
 Book Reviews:

Forts of the United States: An Historical Dictionary, 16th through 19th Centuries
(Selected by the National Archives for their reference section)

Bud Hannings ISBN 978-0-7864-1796-4
“Meticulous research…useful…impressive and thorough…recommended”—Booklist/RBB
“Valuable…a tremendous amount of information”—ARBA
“Superb”—C&RL News

“highly recommended”—The Midwest Book Review
“a wealth of information…valuable”—The Library of Virginia
“comprehensive…highly accurate tome…Hannings is a genius at research and organizational detail…of great value”—Leatherneck

“Hannings has hit another home run…exhaustively researched and meticulously ocumented…superb…backs up his text with an exhaustive, detailed bibliography…an even-handed approach to history, neither slighting nor favoring individual states or the factions that are now interwoven as the fabric of our military history…a remarkable book, and one that deserves to find an audience beyond libraries…middle and high school students will gain an appreciation of their own local history by completing assignments and reports that draw upon Bud Hannings’ sources…. Buy it, read it, treasure it, and pass it down to your children and grandchildren”—Infantry Magazine.

The Korean War An Exhaustive Chronology Bud Hannings (Selected by the National Archives for their reference section)

Foreword by General P.X. Kelley, USMC (Ret.), 28th Commandant ISBN 978-0-7864-2814-4
Detailed…an excellent purchase”—Booklist/RBB
Highly recommended”—The Midwest Book Review
Hannings’ work easily can become a cornerstone reference about one of the most difficult and misunderstood wars in recent history…appendices…provide significant statistics and supplemental information…it is an impressive work”—Leatherneck
subtitle is certainly correct…extensive details for each day about combat, administrative, diplomatic, and political operations, events, issues, and themes…this important work will probably be the definitive chronology…for some time to come”—ARBA
Bud Hannings’ long awaited history of the Korean War has arrived, and it was well worth the
wait…exhaustive research”—Infantry
meticulously constructed record…valuable…gives readers an intimate look at combat…recommended”—Reference Reviews.


Chronology of the American Revolution Military and Political Actions Day by Day
(Selected by the National Archives for their reference section)  Bud Hannings ISBN 978-0-7864-2948-6
Recommended”—Library Journal
Straightforward…extensive…an excellent resource”—Booklist/RBB
Excellent…superb period illustrations…highly recommended…a great reference source for all students of history…fascinating facts”—Leatherneck
highly recommended”—The Midwest Book Review
monumental…well-illustrated”—C&RL News
students will relish this detailed account…an immensely useful resource”—School Library Journal
meticulously researched and detailed…excellent”—ARBA
meticulously researched…provides a wealth of information…valuable”—Against the Grain.
meticulous attention to detail…monumental painstaking work…detail in this book is simply
phenomenal, and in addition to being a superb research resource it is simply a great read”—Infantry

 American Revolutionary War Leaders A Biographical Dictionary (Selected by the National Archives for their reference section)

Bud Hannings ISBN 978-0-7864-4379-6
The main value of this volume are the entries on the lesser-known and obscure figures…should also be commended for his persistence in trying to track down so many unknown individuals…recommended”—Library Journal
Excellent…a monumental compilation of well-written and painstakingly researched biographies…a
tremendous and timely resource”—School Library Journal
“Informative…comprehensive and definitive…impressive…highly recommended”—The Midwest Book Review.
An exceptional resume of historical reference works…superb…amazing detail…an insightful and
entertaining look into the great leaders…” Leatherneck.

Every Day of the Civil War A Chronological Encyclopedia (Selected by the National Archives for their reference section)
Bud Hannings ISBN 978-0-7864-4464-9 Publication Date: June 2010.
exhaustive…recommended for a general audience with a significant interest in the Civil War”—Library Journal
fascinating and informative…readers will gain considerable knowledge about the Civil War from this book…highly recommended”—Choice
exceptional historical reference”—Leatherneck Magazine
“might go further than any prior effort in chronicling the war’s military features”—Civil War Books and Authors
a good source”—ARBA
wonderfully made”—This Mighty Scourge.

The French and Indian War (Selected by the National Archives for their reference section) Bud Hannings ISBN 978-07864-4906-4 Publication Date Spring 2011 Available Now.
The War of 1812
Publication date spring/summer 2012

Combined Reviews for Portrait of the Stars and Stripes and Portrait of the Stars and Stripes II.
Portrait of The Stars and Stripes–Seniram Publishing, Glenside, Pennsylvania (covers the American Revolution to the conclusion of World War I) and Portrait of The Stars and Stripes, Volume II–Seniram Publishing, Glenside, Pennsylvania (Covers the period 1919 until the conclusion of World War II)
Leatherneck Magazine: “…staggering amount of information…not the usual nonsense by some egghead author about the whys and wherefores…it merely says what took place in brief straightforward terms.”
General Al M. Gray, 29th Commandant, USMC Ret.:
“…rapid-paced and gripping chronicle…a factual depiction of the U.S. Military.”
Military Review: “…a virtual patriotic encyclopedia covering its chosen period.”

Stars and Stripes (National Tribune): “…unashamed, patriotic chronicle of America at war-stirring tribute…the heroes are back”
General P. X. Kelley, 28th Commandant, USMC, Ret:”Volumes I and II, A Portrait of the Stars and Stripes are among the most important reference books on the armed forces ever written.” “…excellent books…” –
Infantry Magazine: “Superb…”
Vice Admiral William P. Lawrence, USN Ret., former Chief of Naval Personnel:
“…unabashedly patriotic…an utterly praiseworthy work…superb reference book.”
Mr. John Lehman, former Secretary the Navy:
“A book for the times, when Americans are searchng for their roots and for inspiration…”
Major General George S. Patton, USA, Ret.:
“…magnificent..unique contribution to the history of the nation.”
Navy Times:”A one-of-a-kind book, destined to be equally at home with the college scholar and the high school dropout.”
Marine Corps Gazette: “weighs in heavily on individual accomplishments…a reference to be savored.”
Colonel Bill White, USMC Ret. Editor Leatherneck Magazine:
Two extraordinary books…no red-blooded citizen will find these books boring…”
Mr. Frank Rizzo (late), former Mayor Philadelphia, Pa.: Outstanding…a comprehensive overview of the facts…a tremendous reference for teachers and students alike.”
Armor (Fort Knox): “…a patriotic experience…gives accurate coverage to individuals on both sides of the conflict.”
The Bookreader (San Francisco):
“Unabashedly patriotic…the research is immense…an utterly praiseworthy work”
Savannah Morning News: “A book for people who get tears in their eyes when the Flag goes by.”

Mr. Henry “Bud” Shaw, Chief Historian, USMC, retired:
“A great work…superlative job that shows incredible research, stamina and drive.”
General William C. Westmoreland, ret. Chief of Staff, U.S. Army:
“an accurate depiction of U.S. Military…serves worthy purpose for those interested in factual history.”
Military, The Press of Freedom:
“…the reader will be overwhelmed by the facts…outstanding example of scholarly research.”
The Friday Review (Dept. of Defense):
“these volumes are meant to be used by researchers and libraries…this is an astonishing achievement…the works deserve a prominent place in the nation’s recorded history files.”
Small Press Review: “the coverage is encyclopedic and dramatic…can be read for an unforgettable journey through the war.”
General Thomas Kelly, USA Ret.: “a great book.”
The Military Book Club (on volume II): “A massive and exceedingly thorough chronicle of the key military events from 1919-1945…this is one of those you-have-to-see-for- yourself books. We believe you’ll be as impressed as we are.”
National Defense Magazine (volume II): “a monumental chronological compilation…day-by-day snapshots by theatre and it is crossed referenced in a 62 page index…splendid source for recalling the agony and glory of World War II.”
Colonel Al Garland, Ret. Former Editor Infantry Magazine. “Excellent Works-heart stirring. The books vividly portray the Americans on the battlefield…an unabashedly patriotic panorama that should be read by every American.”.”

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