The Battle of Shiloh, by Bud Hannings, excerpted from Every Day of the Civil War. McFarland and Company, Inc. Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina. Copyright 2010
April 6–7 1862–BATTLE OF SHILOH
The Confederate Army of the Mississippi, at about 0300, boldly and with total surprise launches a massive attack against Union lines at Shiloh, Tennessee. The Confederates, with General William J. Hardee’s Third Corps in the center at the point, flanked on the left by Leonidas Polk’s First Corps and on the right by Braxton Bragg’s Second Corps, each begin moving into position on the Corinth Road, Owl Creek and Ridge Road respectively. The entire operation is concluded without detection by the Union, setting up a colossal ambush that awaits only the signal to launch the assault. It comes at precisely 0500 and the three solid lines push off. General Hardee’s advance troops, trailed closely behind by the main body, smash into General Prentiss’ picket lines, driving them back.
On the right, two brigades plow into General William T. Sherman’s left flank near Shiloh Church and drive through, slamming directly into General Prentiss’ main force. Both the strength and the depth of this attack catch the Union off guard, and to make the situation even more critical, many of the Union contingents have never seen battle. This Confederate juggernaut is their baptism under fire and they are being inundated, which compels them to retire in undisciplined fashion. Nearby, the 1st and 4th Brigades of Colonels John D. McDowell and Ralph Buckland, having only just set up their lines, are also effortlessly driven back to Major General John A. McClernand’s positions, losing a battery in the process.
McClernand’s force is ordered up to provide support to Sherman’s left flank, while General Stephen A. Hurlbut is speeding to bolster Prentiss. All the while the Rebels continue to strike blow after blow as they advance with a feeling of invincibility against the faltering Union lines. In addition to the sheer power of the ground assault, the Confederates under General Daniel Ruggles unleash their 62 cannon, the largest artillery force ever assembled on a North American battlefield.
By 0700, Sherman’s entire line is being overwhelmed with a sea of gray and McClernand’s left flank to the rear of Prentiss is engaged all along the line. But by now, with the shock wearing off and the hefty support of Taylor’s Chicago Battery, Sherman’s troops have dug in rigidly, and with the added inspiration of Sherman himself, who is moving all along the line, despite having sustained a wound to the hand, the Union force regains stability. Sherman’s high visibility, although a sharp target for the Confederates, is a swaggering example of boldness to his troops.
In the meantime, General Grant is informed of the crisis in Sherman’s sector. With some reformed units, he rushes there to stiffen the defensive line. As the whirlwind of shot and shell soars overhead and the bayonets clash with deadly results, more Confederates gush into the field of battle. At about 0900, Sherman’s left flank, already under severe stress, receives another devastating blow as Hardee’s Third Corps emerges from the woods, along with a strong contingent of Bragg’s Second Corps. Simultaneously, Polk’s First Corps stalks Sherman’s rear. Meanwhile, the units under W.H.L. Wallace that Grant, prior to moving to aid Sherman, had ordered to reform are moving up from Crump’s Landing.
The reinforcements form a new defensive line on a ridge to the front of Snake Creek and tightly hold the line there, halting a tenacious Rebel advance. However, more Confederate troops arrive and they pounce upon Colonel Everett Peabody’s 1st Brigade, threatening to overwhelm it and crack right through Prentiss’ lines to reach the river. General Hurlbut dispatches his 2nd Brigade to lend support, but he withholds the 1st and 3rd Brigades. The reinforcements are insufficient to halt the Confederates’ progress. They continue to pour incessant fire and advance almost at will. Hurlbut speeds the remaining two brigades forward, but their arrival is too late to stem the tide.
During the course of the fighting, Colonel Nelson G. Williams, while leading a brigade (Hurlbut’s division), becomes severely injured (temporarily paralyzed) when an artillery shell strikes his horse, causing it to fall upon him.
Other Union reinforcements, Prentiss’s 2nd Brigade under Colonel Madison Miller and General W.H.L. Wallace’s 2nd Brigade under General John McArthur (appointed brigadier general earlier this year), move to support a contingent of Sherman’s force, David L. Stuart’s brigade, which had inadvertently become positioned beyond a huge gap along the Hamburg Road and comes under tremendous pressure as the surging Rebels begin to encircle it. Both brigades, Miller’s and MacArthur’s, encounter large enemy forces and each is compelled to retire. And at Prentiss’s positions, the situation is grave. The Confederates mass a huge line and with relentless fury, hammer the 1st Brigade under Colonel Peabody. Consequently, Peabody’s brigade becomes totally isolated from the remainder of the main force, which severely weakens Prentiss, who with his few remaining regiments attempts to forestall disaster.
Meanwhile, Peabody, while leading the 25th Missouri, is lost during the early fighting, deepening the predicament for Prentiss. The Union, pressed by the overwhelming strength of the Rebels, makes a hasty retreat toward the Tennessee River with the Rebels running up their backs. Once there, and commanding more tenable positions, they regroup and form a staunch line at Sunken Road, dubbed the “Hornet’s Nest.” Prentiss is able to fend off a series of devastating attacks, but following about three hours of incessant combat, coupled with the fact that he is encircled, Prentiss is compelled to surrender.
In the meantime, still more Confederate units slam into McClernand’s main body along the Corinth and Pittsburg Landing Road, and yet others force Colonel David L. Stuart’s brigade to retreat. It pulls back to positions that nearly are off the field of battle. All the while, as the Union attempts to regroup and repel the attacks, more and more Rebel contingents arrive to inflict even heavier punishment. By 1100, McClernand’s lines are driven back to those of General Hurlbut, and within an hour, the Confederates occupy much of the terrain that had earlier in the day encamped the forces of McClernand, Prentiss, Sherman and Stuart. The Confederates also seize many cannon and a large number of prisoners, including about one-half of Captain Edward McAllister’s and Major Adolph Schwartz’s artillerymen.
Other Union outfits are able to buy some time at the expense of Prentiss’ 6th Division by digging in at Pittsburg Landing and constructing a desperate final line of defense. The Union is being dealt such a serious blow that nearby there remains only two intact divisions, Wallace’s Second and Hurlbut’s Fourth, along with the shattered remnants of the other units of Prentiss’s Sixth Division. W.H. Wallace expeditiously shifts his lines to fill a hole on Hurlbut’s left flank, which also provides some protection to the supplies and the wagons.
The Union, despite losing about half of both McAllister’s and Schwartz’s batteries, still controls some additional firepower. Major Cavender is on hand with the batteries of Richardson, Stone and Webber. Nonetheless, the Confederates hold the momentum and expect to overwhelm the guns and drive the Union line back to the river. However, the badly bruised Union forces are not quite ready to capitulate. Instead, they prepare to defend against another massive assault.
Three Rebel units, the divisions of Benjamin Franklin Cheatham and Jones M. Withers and the Reserve Corps under John C. Breckinridge, smash into the lines, and for the duration of the afternoon, the opposing sides bludgeon each other. The artillery batteries trade barrages and the field becomes layered with casualties. Destroyed equipment lies in flames, as the incessant artillery bombardments have set many areas of the woods afire. Some units, including the Union 44th Indiana, become heavily engaged while the blazes and smoke sweep violently in front of their lines. The raging fires create huge hovering clouds of thick choking smoke that further impede the contest. The Confederates launch repeated assaults, seemingly with Hurlbut’s artillery as the primary objective, but the Peach Orchard is firmly held by the defenders and their guns rivet the Rebel columns.
In the meantime, other Confederates whack the right side of the front line, forcing a slight crack, while additional units pound the flanks, igniting a donnybrook. Hurlbut’s command is pressed further and compelled to again pull back moving closer to the river. This retirement then causes the remnants of Sherman’s and McClernand’s divisions to head for more tenable positions in the same general area. General W.H.L. Wallace, while attempting to thwart the attacks of Polk’s and Hardee’s forces, is mortally wounded. Colonel J.M. Tuttle, commanding the 1st Brigade, succeeds him as commander of the division. He is promoted to brigadier general the following June.
By this time, at about 1700, the savage, close-quartered fighting has exhausted and disorganized both sides. At the river, after sustaining about 4,000 casualties, the Union troops are scattered along the high banks of the landing and along the lower banks near the transport vessels. Attempts are immediately made to reform and rally the troops, but initially, the effort is fruitless. Meanwhile, the Confederates, having already gained both the advantage and the momentum, are preparing to mount another solid attack to inflict total defeat and demoralize the Yankees. The Union, to avoid absolute disaster, must hold at all hazards until the arrival of General Buell’s force that is en route.
During the late afternoon, the Union gets an unexpected reprieve. A detachment commanded by Colonel J. Webster, General Grant’s chief of staff, places 53 guns on the high ground in support of the troops who are now compressed in a fragile half-moon position. The Confederates, unaware of the arrival of the additional guns, complete the preparations for what is expected to be the final assault to crush the Union.
The Rebels, with an enormous amount of vitality, sound the attack, and the columns advance to the roaring guns of the artillery, but this time, it is the Confederates who receive the surprise. The tattered Union lines have finally regrouped and the Union guns greet the Rebels with a furious hurricane of fire, so heavy that the attack striking the right is quickly forced back. In the meantime, the Union gunboats, USS Tyler and Lexington, until now mere spectators, finally get their opportunity to propel pernicious salutations to the overwhelming numbers of Confederates. The interdiction fire is extraordinarily explosive and particularly deadly as the gunboats’ 64-pound shot and 12-inch shells rock the slopes and create bedlam within the Rebel ranks, inflicting extremely heavy casualties.
At about this same time, early evening, the spirits of the beleaguered Union troops experience a huge lift with the arrival of Buell’s advance guard, which moves in and covers Grant’s left. The combined fire of the Union infantry, artillery and the gunboats secure the field and cut off a Confederate attempt to cross Dill Creek, prior to a subdued darkness, which temporarily silences the blazing gunfire which has raged ruthlessly throughout the day.
At about dusk, General Lewis Wallace’s force, ordered up earlier in the morning, finally arrives and it is received with welcome arms, but Grant is also annoyed at the delay in arrival, attributed to some confusion. Wallace explains that he had indeed departed immediately upon receiving the order to move out. He informs Grant that he had advanced toward positions expected to be in the heat of the battle, but due to unanticipated Confederate gains, he had been off en route by about six miles. Once informed by Captain John Rawlins, Grant’s adjutant general who had intercepted Wallace, who had been inadvertently advancing to the Confederate rear, retraces his steps and although tardy, deploys in the proper positions to bolster the exhausted Yankees.
Although this day’s battle concludes at about 2100, the gunboats USS Lexington and Tyler, using synchronized firing systems, pound Confederate shore positions at 15 minute intervals, allowing Buell’s troops to move into Union lines undetected, setting the stage for a horrendous surprise for the Confederates, who still suspect that Grant’s beleaguered lines are ready to be sliced into pieces. In addition, the Confederates, who have also sustained heavy casualties, have lost their commander-in-chief, General Albert S. Johnston. Command reverts to General Pierre Beauregard, who establishes headquarters at Shiloh Church. Neither side has an opportunity to receive much relaxation, as the bombardments are maintained throughout the night, causing the Rebels to constantly seek safer positions. In addition, both sides are forced to contend with a terrible storm that drenches the entire area.
On the 7th, prior to dawn, Grant, with the addition of Lew Wallace’s division (Grant’s army) and Buell’s army, including Thomas L. Crittenden (Fifth Division), McCook (Second Division), and Nelson (Fourth Division), has 55,000 troops available to repulse whatever is thrown at his lines by the Confederates. The First Division under General George H. Thomas is too far to the rear to arrive in time and the Sixth Division under General T.J. Wood is only able to get one brigade to the scene of battle; however, Grant’s other forces, which received a thrashing on the previous day, are anxious to redeem themselves. The Union line stretches from the Hamburg and Purdy Roads to Owl Creek, with Buell holding the left and General Lewis Wallace holding the right. The forces of McClernand, Hurlbut and Sherman, which had been engaged on the previous day, are stacked in the center.
In contrast, the Confederates have been compelled by the night-long bombardments to relinquish much of the ground they had secured. They now stand to the front of the encampments they held on the previous day. On the right, held by General Hardee, Chalmers’ and Jackson’s brigades, both attached to Withers’ division, prepare to attack, and holding the center are the forces of Breckinridge and Polk. The far left is held by the remnants of Bragg’s force.
On this day, it is the Union which initiates the action. Slightly before dawn, on the Union right, Lew Wallace’s force commences a powerful bombardment that strikes Rebel positions in a thickly wooded ravine that lies opposite their positions. In concert with the booming artillery barrage, and following the silencing of one of the Confederate guns, Wallace orders an assault to penetrate the Confederate line defended by General Bragg. The Union advances and secures a hill, and anticipating a quick advance by Sherman, Wallace moves to turn the Confederate flank, expecting Sherman to move in and hold the gap; however, the Rebels strike first, intending to collapse Wallace’s right. Union artillery and the 8th Missouri Regiment neutralize the attempt and repel an assault, which includes Confederate cavalry. At about the same time, Colonel Morgan L. Smith’s 1st Brigade is struck by a tenacious but unsuccessful infantry assault that advances under the fire of the guns of a Louisiana battery. Following these vicious engagements, Sherman arrives and both divisions move toward Shiloh Church, Beauregard’s headquarters. The columns proceed without encountering any heavy resistance until they encroach the objective.
In the meantime, at about 0530, on the Union’s right, General Nelson’s Fourth Division advances, trailed by Crittenden’s Fifth Division and Rousseau’s 4th Brigade (McCook’s Second Division). Soon after, they encounter and push back Confederate pickets attached to Forrest’s cavalry, but as the advance broadens, resistance stiffens. Standing in the path of advance are contingents of three separate brigades, Chalmer’s, Gladden’s and Jackson’s, bolstered by some unattached Tennessee and Alabama regiments and supporting artillery. The Yankees come under a severe assault that forces them to fall back toward the trailing division of Crittenden, but when they join, the line becomes galvanized. The Union turns the tables and strikes back with a disciplined advance under the umbrella security of hefty artillery. The power of the attack drives the Rebels back, permitting the Union to regain a battery that had earlier been lost.
Once the Rebels begin to retreat, fresh troops arrive to bolster them and permit the flight to end. By about 0800, the Confederates are able to launch a new offensive and the blood-soaked field becomes engulfed in close-quartered slaughter, with each side delivering punishing blows. Amid the wild fighting, the artillery, indifferent to man and beast, jolts the earth, causing high casualties among both; suddenly many of the opposing cavalrymen become horseless from the blazing fire of the cannon and rifles. Nonetheless, the Rebels once again press to smash a gap into the lines of the Union, now held by two divisions and Lovell H. Rosseau’s 4th Brigade (McCook’s Second Division), which just arrived on Crittenden’s left. General Buell has also arrived with his brigade.
Crittenden’s division arrives from Shiloh Church and moves into position on Breckinridge’s line. All the while, the determined Confederates remain unaware of the added Union strength. They advance and whack the 19th Brigade under Colonel William B. Hazen and push it upon an open field and beyond. The troops desperately seek to reach better positions in the woods to Crittenden’s left, but during the attempt to gain tenable positions, the unit gets caught in a devastating artillery crossfire. At the same time, Colonel Jacob Ammen’s 10th Brigade, Fourth Division under Nelson, comes under extreme pressure. It is close to being turned, which would cause a collapse in the line, but reinforcements, Terrell’s Battery (McCook’s Division), arrive, bringing with them twentyfour pound howitzers. Ammen’s brigade, bolstered by the artillery, commences a tremendous bombardment that slings sheets of fire toward the Rebel positions and repels the assault, but still there is neither victor nor vanquished. The Confederates are stalled but not defeated. At about this time, more Union reinforcements begin to fill the ranks. Boyle’s 11th Brigade (Crittenden’s Fifth Division) sprints forward and deploys to the left of Nelson’s Fourth Division. Once there, a colossal amount of support fire pours in from the batteries of Terrell, Mendenhall and Bartlett, giving Boyle’s brigade some running room. It bolts forward and delivers a solid blow that staggers the Rebels. With unrelenting vengeance, the brigade doggedly drives ahead and the enormous pressure compels the Rebels to give more ground until eventually they are driven beyond their second and third batteries, both of which are quickly seized by the Union. And still more Union troops are speeding to the front lines. While Nelson is reversing the situation on his front, McCook’s Second Division is also becoming stronger as large contingents of fresh troops at Savannah are being ferried across the river.
Colonel Edward N. Kirk’s 5th Brigade and a contingent of the 6th Brigade, led by Colonel W.H. Gibson, deploy to cover Rosseau’s right and rear respectively, and they are supported by the 32nd Indiana Regiment under Colonel August Willich and two other regiments of Hurlbut’s command. The Confederates assault McCook’s positions, but his additional strength gives him a large advantage and the determined Rebels are repulsed. McCook, not intent on holding his ground, orders an attack to whip and scatter the assault troops. The Union jumps off and plunges a deadly wedge into the line of the Rebel forces, compelling them to retire. Meanwhile, the Union accelerates its attack and inflicts more punishment. The surging troops seize a Rebel battery and fold the right side of the Confederate line, providing Lovell H. Rosseau’s 4th Brigade an opportunity to funnel through the gap and hook up with elements of Nelson’s Fourth Division, which had been massing in the area where McClernand had been encamped on the previous day. A heated contest erupts as Rosseau’s troops and the Rebels fight for control of the camp. When Rosseau bolted from his positions to advance, a gap in the line had been created. The Rebels spot the hole and take action to exploit the situation.
As the morning continues to fade into afternoon, Confederates swiftly move to drive a wedge into the gap between McCook and Crittenden to force McCook’s left to turn and permit the Rebels to widen the hole, but the maneuver is detected. Colonel Willich’s 32nd Indiana commences a nasty bayonet attack, while Kirk’s 5th Brigade slides in behind Willich and fills the void created by the departure of Rosseau. In the meantime, the Confederates, although initially thwarted, again attempt to advance and drive a wedge between McCook and Crittenden.
The Rebels strike with enormous strength and plow full-force into the left side of the line, defended by Colonel W. H. Gibson’s 49th Ohio. Repeatedly, the Rebels pounce upon the regiment and twice the Union is compelled to reform the front line to prevent penetration, which could jeopardize the entire line. While the Rebels are prevented from breaking through, Rosseau moves back to get re-supplied.
By about 1400, Rosseau’s brigade arrives back at the line to reinitiate its attack. It is supported by McClernand’s force on the right and by two of Hurlbut’s regiments on the left. Soon after, with the added support of artillery originating from the remaining batteries of McAllister and Wood, the columns advance, but surprisingly, they encounter only slight resistance as they encroach some dense woods. Wallace’s force, which had commenced its attack prior to dawn, has been battling the Rebels at Shiloh Church. While the Confederates are battling to maintain the edge at all points, the Union, as it nears the thicket, receives the signal to launch a general attack. Now, as the afternoon weighs heavily on both sides, the monstrous general assault of the Union raises the stakes, and the Confederates under Beauregard, supported by Generals Polk, Bragg and Breckinridge, must hold, or their cause is lost.
In Wallace’s sector at Shiloh Church, the left flank has been twice jeopardized but never broken. However, the Rebels have succeeded in cracking Sherman’s flank and creating a large gap. While Sherman’s force regroups to launch an offensive to reclaim the terrain, the 23rd Indiana and the 1st Nebraska turn back a cavalry assault. Soon after, the 11th Indiana under Colonel Francis McGinnis, the 76th Ohio under Charles R. Woods and a contingent of McClernand’s force hits the field, giving Wallace an abundance of firepower to hold tightly and launch an assault to demoralize the beleaguered Confederates. The Union advance forces the Confederates to surrender ground as they hurriedly abandon the field under orders of General Beauregard, who has concluded that lacking reinforcements, remaining on the field would merely cost more lives. Runners carrying urgent dispatches requesting reinforcements are sent to General Earl Van Dorn, but they can locate neither his positions nor his scouts.
Reluctantly, at about 1430, Beauregard leads his force toward Corinth. He leaves Breckinridge with his 12,000 troops that had been held in reserve to cover the retirement. Beauregard’s specific orders: “This retreat must not be a rout. You hold the enemy back, if it requires the loss of your last man.” Breckinridge responds: “Your orders shall be carried out to the letter.” He deploys his troops on a nearby ridge to await the pursuing Union troops, but none arrive. After about a half hour, he withdraws to establish night positions about two miles from the blood soaked battlefield. By now, Union troops, freshly arrived as part of General Thomas J. Wood’s Division, had begun pursuit; however, after reaching Lick Creek, the chase terminates. By 1600, all firing ends.
Despite the cessation of the guns, there is still incessant misery. The area is hit by another grueling night of bad weather that includes a pesky drizzling rain and annoying hail. But even more discouraging is the task of burying the dead. Immediately following the conclusion of the battle, the dead on both sides are buried and the animals that had been killed are burned to eliminate health hazards. The Confederates, sustaining high casualties, nearly out of ammunition and without any hope of receiving reinforcements, march unchallenged to Corinth.
Grant’s forces, badly hurt themselves, are forced to allow the Confederates to withdraw without pursuit. The arrival of Generals Don Carlos Buell, Lew Wallace, and William Nelson most certainly save the Union Army from defeat. Grant is also aided by ships, including the USS Tyler and Lexington. Additional reinforcements, a brigade (Thomas J. Wood’s Division, General Don Carlos Buell’s Army of the Cumberland) under General Milo Hascall, arrives on the 17th. It will participate at Corinth. General Hascall had been recently appointed brigadier general effective April 1862. Also, Colonel (later brigadier general) Edward N. Kirk is wounded while leading a brigade (McCook’s 2nd Division). Later this year, Kirk’s brigade will be transferred to General Sill’s corps.
Confederate Colonel (later brigadier general) Alexander T. Hawthorn, 6th Arkansas Infantry, participates at this action. Also, Confederate Major John Kelly, commanding the 9th Arkansas Battalion, following his service with the 14th Arkansas Regiment, participates in this action and for his apparent conspicuous heroism he is promoted to the rank of colonel the following month. Kelly continues to serve with distinction in Tennessee, participating in such battles as Perryville, Murfreesboro and Chickamauga, the latter springing him to a promotion to brigadier general. The 8th Texas Cavalry (Terry’s Texas Rangers), led by Colonel John Austin Wharton, also participates at this action; Wharton sustains a wound in the process.
Union casualties are 1,735 killed, 7,882 wounded and 3,956 captured. Confederate casualties total 1,728 killed, 8,012 wounded and 959 captured. Union General Harvey Lamb Wallace is mortally wounded while extricating his troops from an untenable position at the infamous “Hornet’s Nest”; he dies on 10 April. General John McArthur receives command of Wallace’s division. Alexander Chambers (West Point, 1853) is wounded twice while fighting with his command, the 16th Iowa. Chambers is appointed brigadier general in November 1863. Captain (later brigadier general) Francis Fessenden, 19th U.S. Infantry (younger brother of Union General James D. Fessenden), participating
in his first battle, is also wounded. Colonel Everett Peabody (13th Missouri Volunteer infantry) is also killed (6th). Lt. Colonel Edward F.W. Ellis, 15th Illinois, is killed instantly when his regiment comes under heavy fire on Monday morning. Colonel Thomas E. Ransom is wounded, his third wound, but he refuses to leave the field. Later he is appointed chief of staff to General John McClernand.
Union Colonel Mason Brayman participates at this battle. In September he is commissioned a brigadier general. He later receives the command of Bolivar, Tennessee, where he remains until June 1863. During 1865, Brayman commands at Natchez. Union Colonel Ralph P. Buckland participates at Shiloh, commanding a brigade under William T. Sherman. Buckland becomes brigadier general on November 29, 1862. Union Colonel Marcellus M. Crocker (later brigadier general) of the 13th Iowa, 6th Division, Army of the Tennessee, also participates. Major (later brevet major general)
Charles Carroll Walcutt sustains a shoulder wound; however, doctors do not remove the bullet. It remains in his shoulder for the rest of his life. Afterward, Walcutt continues to serve with General William Sherman. Walcutt is promoted to colonel of his regiment, the 46th Ohio, on 16 October.
The mayor of Cincinnati had earlier requested that Sisters of Charity treat the sick and wounded troops of the Ohio regiments. With the archbishop’s approval they had accepted. Their arrival after the Battle of Shiloh and Pittsburg Landing assures them of many patients. Upon their arrival, many civilian women offer to assist with the patients, but the sisters soon find themselves alone. A smallpox epidemic breaks out and the civilian women leave the hospital.
Confederate General Albert S. Johnston, commander-in-chief, is mortally wounded on the 6th when a Minié ball strikes him through a boot and severs a main artery. Johnston’s chief of engineers, Colonel Jeremy Gilmer, is wounded. Confederate General Braxton Bragg (West Point, 1837) assumes command of the 2nd Corps after Johnston’s death. Major General Braxton Bragg, after the demise of General A.S. Johnston, is promoted to the full rank of general in the Confederate Regular Army. Confederate Brigadier General Adley H. Gladden is mortally wounded, initially suffering the loss of an arm while leading his brigade of Alabama and Louisiana units. Gladden succumbs on 12 April. Following Gladden’s death, Colonel Zachary C. Deas takes temporary command of the brigade.
Confederate Colonel Zachariah C. Deas, commander of the 22nd Alabama, sustains a serious wound, but he will recover and join with General Braxton Bragg during the latter’s invasion of Kentucky. Confederate Major (later brigadier general) James T. Holtzclaw, 18th Alabama Regiment, is severely wounded in the lung and it is thought to be a fatal blow, but he survives and returns to active duty within several months. Holtzclaw is soon promoted to colonel and becomes a brigadier general on 7 July 1864. Also, George W. Johnson, provisional governor of Kentucky, is killed during fighting on the 7th. Confederate Colonel Jean Jacques A. Mouton (West Point, 1850) is also severely wounded; however, he recovers. Mouton is appointed brigadier general on 16 April and later serves during the Red River Campaign.
Confederate Generals John Stevens Bowen (6th), Charles Clark (6th), and Thomas C. Hindman (6th) are wounded. Confederate Colonel William B. Bate is seriously wounded while leading his Confederate 2nd Tennessee Regiment. Confederate Colonel (later general) Daniel W. Wise, 1st Louisiana Regulars, loses sight in his right eye during the battle. Also, Lt. Colonel (later general) Henry Watkins Allen, 4th Louisiana Infantry Regiment, is wounded. Allen receives a devastating wound at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in August. His leg is so badly wounded that he uses crutches for the rest of his life. Colonel Robert C. Tyler, 15th Tennessee Regiment, is wounded at this action. Colonel Alexander T. Hawthorn (6th Arkansas) participates.
Colonel (later brigadier general) Randall Lee Gibson commands the 13th Louisiana at this action. Confederate Major (later brigadier general) George D. Johnston and his 25th Alabama Regiment participate. The 25th Alabama serves in the Army of Tennessee in each of its engagements from here to Bentonville, North Carolina, in 1865. Confederate Major (later general) William Wirt Allen, 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, is promoted to colonel for his heroism during the fighting at Shiloh. The Confederate 12th Tennessee Cavalry, led by Colonel (later brigadier general) Robert V. Richardson, participates. Also, Confederate Brigadier General Daniel Ruggles, subsequent to this action, will be assigned duties in an administrative capacity rather than in the field; however, he does participate in some actions.